THE MASS OF THE WESTERN RITE
By the Right Reverend Dom Fernand Cabrol
Abbot of Farnborough Abbey
THE MASS IN SPAIN
The Mozarabic Liturgy
The Mozarabic liturgy is that which was followed in Spain before the Arab
conquest in 712, and which, after that date, was still generally in use
both by those Spanish who had submitted to the Arabs and by those others
who, having withdrawn into the northern provinces, were able to retain
their independence. The term "Mozarabic" (from musta'rab, or mixto-arabic,
"mixed with the Arabs") only applies in reality to that part of the Spanish
population which did submit to the Saracens. It is, strictly speaking, a
mistake to use it to qualify the Spanish liturgy, since this existed in
Spain previous to the Arab conquest; and, further, because it was also the
liturgy of the free Spaniards in the north. Nevertheless, since this name
is now well established, and is used by most authors, we think it best to
retain it here. Further, the names of Visigothic rite, rite of Toledo,
Hispanic, Gothic, or Spanish rite, by which it has been proposed to replace
the word "Mozarabic" rite, are none of them in themselves perfectly
In all cases this term denotes a liturgy which has been that of Spain from
the beginning of her history; which was maintained in that country until
the twelfth century, and which, even after its suppression, was still
followed in a few churches, and in the sixteenth century was officially
restored in the churches of Toledo, where at the present time it is still
Whatever we may think of its name, the Mozarabic liturgy itself is fairly
well known to us. We may even say that, with the exception of the Roman
liturgy, it is this which provides us with the greatest number of
documents, and gives us the most important information, as may easily be
verified by the paragraph in which these sources are enumerated.
This, however, is not the place to discuss the question of the origin and
sources of these liturgical documents; we can but refer our readers to the
article "Mozarabe" (liturgie) in DACL. It is enough to say that we are not
now reduced (as was the case until recently) to the "Missale Mixtum" of
Lesley, but that at present we have the "Liber Ordinum" (Missal and
Pontifical) and the "Liber Mozarabicus Sacramentorum," both published by
Dom Ferotin, and also the "Comes," or "Liber Comicus," published by Dom
Morin. Thanks to these various documents we can easily reconstitute the
Mozarabic Mass, and go back to an epoch which is almost that of its origin:
let us say, the eighth, or even the seventh, century.
THE PRE-MASS, OR MASS OF THE CATECHUMENS
PREPARATION.--The "Missale Mixtum" contains a Preparation for Mass which is
given after the Mass for Easter (P.L., Vol. LXXXV, cols. 521-522). It
comprehends a number of rites and prayers, washing of hands, four Ave
Maria, prayers for the amice, the alb, girdle, maniple, stole, and
chasuble, an "apologia," the psalm "Judica me" with the anthem "Introibo ad
altare Dei," the confession of sins, the absolution, the prayer "Aufer a
nobis," the signing of the altar with the cross and kissing it (which was
formerly the kissing of the Cross present on the altar), and the prayer on
extending the Corporal upon the altar and on the preparation of the
chalice. Some of these rites and prayers are ancient, as may be seen by a
comparison with the Gallican rites; others are of recent introduction. The
preparation of the chalice and the Corporal formerly took place at the
Offertory (cf. P.L., loc. cit., col. 339, and Lesley's notes on these
INTROIT.--The Mass begins with the "Officium," called by the Gallicans
"Antiphona ad praelegendum," in the Ambrosian rite, Ingressa, and at Rome,
Introit, or "Antiphona ad introitum." It is composed of an anthem, the
verse of a psalm, and a doxology, and is taken either from Holy Scripture
or from the "Acta" of the Saint whose Feast is that day celebrated (cf.
Tommasi, "Disquisitio de antiphona ad introitum Missae," and Lesley's note,
P.L., col. 234). The doxology differs from that of Rome, and the "Semper"
of "Per omnia" is also a feature of the Mozarabic rite. But in outline the
Mozarabic "Officium" is closer to the Roman "Introit" than is the Ambrosian
GLORIA IN EXCELSIS AND COLLECT.--The "Gloria in Excelsis" is enclosed at
beginning and end by "Per omnia semper secula seculorum." It was sung in
this rite on Sundays and Feast Days, as the Fourth Council of Toledo says
(canon 12). Etherius and Beatus also state it (Ord. Elip., I, I; cf. also
Lesley's note, P.L., loc. cit., col. 531). Later the Mozarabites omitted
this hymn on the Sundays of Advent and Lent. It was also sung by the
Gallicans, as may be seen by the Missal of Bobbio, and was followed by two
prayers. In the Mozarabic rite, after the final "Per omnia," the Deacon
cried "Oremus," and the Priest said a prayer. Later on this acclamation of
the Deacon was suppressed, but not the Priest's prayer, which varied for
the Sundays of Advent, Epiphany, Lent, Easter, Pentecost, and for the
Feasts of Saints. The text of these various prayers will be found in the
"Missale Mixtum," P.L., Vol. LXXXV, col. 531 seq. The text of the "Gloria"
here given is the same as usual, but other forms do exist. (On this point
see the discussion between Lebrun and Lesley, P.L., loc. cit., col. 33; and
also Dom German Prado, "Una nueva recension del hymno Gloria in Excelsis"
in "Ephemerides Liturg.," 1932, PP. 481-486.)
The Collect, here called "Oratio," is often directly addressed to Christ,
as in the Gallican liturgies. Very often it is a paraphrase of the "Gloria
in Excelsis." As a rule it has not the sobriety, the precision, nor the
rhythm of the Roman Collect. Often it is merely a kind of pious effusion.
We may take as a chance example the prayer for the Feast of St. Stephen
(P.L., loc. cit., col. 190). After the oratio the Priest says:
"Per misericordiam tuam, Deus noster qui es benedictus: et vivis et omnia
regis in secula seculorum. Amen. Dominus sit semper vobiscum. Et cum
READINGS.--On Fast Days in Spain the "Officium" was shortened, and Mass
began with the Lessons, as it did formerly at Rome. St. Augustine, too,
tells us that in Africa Mass began on Sunday with the reading of Holy
We have one Lesson from the Old Testament, one from St. Paul, and the third
is the Gospel. The first is called the "Prophecy," the second the
"Epistle," or "Apostle," the third the "Gospel." But this order was not
invariable. On Sundays the Prophecy was omitted, while during Lent and on
Fast Days there were four Lessons, two from the Old, two from the New
Testament. Again, from Easter to Pentecost the first Lesson was taken from
the Apocalypse, that from the Old Testament being suppressed. The Gallicans
had almost exactly the same custom with regard to their Lessons. At Rome,
on the contrary (cf. Chap. IV), the readings were usually two in number, as
they are to-day. St. Isidore tells us that the Prophecy was read by the
Lector ("Epist. ad Ludifrid. Cordubensem." As to this custom, cf. Lesley's
note, P.L., loc. cit., col. 251). After the first prayer the Priest saluted
the people, and the Lector from a high place announced the title of the
book, "Lectio libri Exodi," the people responding "Deo Gratias," making the
sign of the Cross, and listening to the Lesson. After it was over they
answered: "Amen" (St. Isidore, "Offic.," I, I, c. x., and I, II, c. xi.).
The Priest added, as he did after the prayer: "Dominus sit semper vobiscum.
Et cum spiritu tuo."
PSALLENDO.--After the Prophecy is chanted the Canticle of the Three
Children, with the first verse of the psalm "Confitemini," as was also the
custom in the Gallican liturgy. The Lectionary of Luxeuil says: "Daniel cum
benedictione", as also does the author of the Letters of St. Germain. The
same order is recalled by the Fourth Council of Toledo (can. 14). After the
"Benedictus es" the Priest began to intone the Psalm "Confitemini," which
was continued by choir and people (see the "Missale Mixtum," P.L., loc.
cit., col. 297 and note). According to the MSS. the "Benedictus es," which
was sung in responses, shows a large number of variations. The "Psallendo,"
which comes next, is a responsory sung by the Precentor from a pulpit. St.
Isidore calls it "responsoria," while in Gaul it was called "Psalmus
responsorius "(St. Isidore, "Offic.," Gregory of Tours, "Hist. Franc.," I,
VIII, c. iii). It has sometimes been confused with the Roman Gradual, but
it differs from this in certain characteristics (cf. Lesley, P.L., loc.
cit., col. 257).
TRACT.--The ancient Mozarabic books contain a Tract, "Tractus," which was
sung from the ambone by the Psalmist. Like the Roman Tract it had neither
repetition nor interruption, and was sung to a very simple melody. It
differed from the Roman Tract, because that of the Gregorian rite follows
the Gradual and takes the place of the "Alleluia," while the Mozarabic
Tract holds the place of the "Psallendo" (Lesley, col. 306. Cf. Tommasi,
"Responsoralia et antiphonaria Romance Ecclesiae," p. 32 seq., Rome, 1686).
DIACONAL PRAYERS.--The "Missale Mixtum" contains a rubric after the
"Psallendo," requiring the Priest to prepare the chalice by putting in wine
and water, to place the Host upon the paten and put that upon the chalice,
and, lastly, to say the "Preces: Indulgentiam postulamus." But this is a
recent rubric, and according to St. Isidore (Epist. ad Ludifr. Cordub.) it
was the place of the Deacon to prepare the chalice and to say the "Preces"
(cf. Lesley, loc. cit., col. 297). In his note Lesley confuses these
"Preces diaconales" with the "Prayer of the Faithful," which is quite
different. These diaconal prayers have great interest for the student of
liturgical history; they are a relic of the past, still preserved in the
Eastern liturgies, but of which but few traces have survived in that of
Rome. They will be found in the "Missale Mixtum," loc. cit., col. 297.
The Priest then says a prayer in a low voice. The following is the text of
that which comes after the diaconal prayer:
"Exaudi orationem nostram, domine: gemitusque nostros auribus percipe: nos
enim iniquitates nostras agnoscimus . et delicta nostra coram te pandimus
tibi Deus peccavimus: tibique confitentes veniam exposcimus. Et quia
recessimus a mandatis tuis: et legi tue minime paruimus. Convertere,
Domine, super servos tuos quos redimisti sanguine tuo. Indulge quaesumus
nobis: et peccatis nostris veniam tribue: tueque pietatis misericordiam in
nobis largire dignare. Amen.
Per misericordiam tuam Deus noster qui es benedictus et vivis et omnia
regis in secula seculorum. Amen."
In the Gallican liturgies this prayer is called "Post Precem."
EPISTLE.--After the singing of the "Psallendo" and the Diaconal Prayers the
Priest commanded silence, "Silentium facite," and the Lector read the
Epistle, usually called the Apostle, as in Gaul, Italy, Africa, and other
countries. He first announced the title, as, for instance, "Sequentia
epistolae Pauli ad Corinthios," to which the people answered "Deo Gratias,"
and signed themselves. But as far back as the time of St. Isidore it was no
longer the Lector, but the Deacon, who read the Epistle. The reading ended,
the people responded Amen, and the Deacon descending from the ambone,
carried the book back to the sacristy (cf. Lesley's note, col. 268). The
text was not always read in its integrity, and the Mozarabic books contain
examples of Lessons where texts are combined or fitted together. (Thus,
P.L., loc. cit., cols. 622 and 278.)
GOSPEL.--Like the Epistle, the Gospel was at first read in Spain by the
Lector. Then this function was reserved for the Deacon, "ad diaconum
pertinere praedicare Evangelium et apostolum" (St. Isidore, "Ep. ad
Ludifr."). This also was the case in Gaul (Gregory of Tours, "Hist.
Franc.," I, VIII, c. iv. IV). The Deacon first said the prayer, "Munda cor
meum corpusque et labia mea," etc., and then went to receive the Bishop's
blessing: "Corroboret Dominus sensum tuum," etc. Having returned to the
altar the Deacon said: "Laus tibi," clergy and people responding: "Laus
tibi, Domine Jesu Christe, Rex aeternae gloriae." He then ascended the
ambone, with the book, preceded by those who bore candles, and perhaps
incense, and announced the reading: "Lectio sancti evangelii secundum
Lucam," to which the people answered: "Gloria tibi, Domine," making the
sign of the Cross, and responding "Amen" at the end of the Gospel, which
they stood upright to hear. The Bishop kissed the book of the Gospels when
this was presented to him, saying: "Ave, verbum divinum, reformatio
virtutum et restitutio sanitatum." (P.L., Vol. LXXXV, col. 269.)
As in the case of the Prophecy and the Epistle, the Mozarabic books do not
scruple to omit verses of the Gospel, or to rearrange its text. After the
reading the Priest said: "Dominus sit semper vobiscum. "Et cum spiritu
In private Masses the Priest recited a prayer before the Gospel: "Comforta
me, Rex sanctorum," etc., and also the "Dominus sit in corde meo," etc.,
the Deacon saying the "Munda cor meum" (cf. loc. cit., col. 528). But these
prayers are of a later age, and are probably borrowed from the Roman
LAUDA.--The "Lauda," which follows the Gospel, is composed of the
"Alleluia" and a verse taken generally from a psalm. This place was
assigned to it by the Fourth Council of Toledo (cf. also St. Isidore,
"Offic.," I, I, c. xiii.). In the "Missale Mixtum" it is followed by "Deo
Gratias," but it would not appear that this is primitive (P.L., loc. cit.,
col. 536). The "Lauda" is sung by the Cantor. This custom of singing a
verse after the Gospel is found in other liturgies.
At this point there was formerly (at least on certain days, especially in
Lent) a prayer for the penitents, and their dismissal, as well as that of
the catechumens (cf. P.L., loc. cit., cols. 307, 308). Here the Pre-Mass
ended. We see that its principal features are very much the same as those
of the Gallican, and even the Roman, Pre-Mass. But the Mozarabic rite has
preserved more memories of the primitive liturgy.
THE MASS OF THE FAITHFUL
I. THE IMMEDIATE PREPARATION.--In the "Missale Mixtum" the Offertory is
composed of the following prayers, which accompany the different acts of
the Priest: the offering of the Host and the chalice, the preparation of
the chalice and the paten on the altar, etc.: "Acceptabilis sit, Offerimus
tibi hanc oblationem . . . et omnium offerentium, In spiritu humilitatis,
Adjuvate me, fratres" (loc. cit., col. 113).
Offertory.--The "Sacrificium "which follows these prayers answers to the
singing of the Offertory. St. Isidore uses the two words as synonyms. In
the letter "ad Ludifr.," so often quoted, he says "Sacrificium;" but in "De
Offic.," I, I, 14, he says "Offertoria." The Gallicans have a chant here,
Those who were not to assist at the Sacrifice having been dismissed, the
Deacons took off the pallium, which up till then had covered the altar, and
laid the Corporal upon it. "Quis fidelium," says St. Optatus, "nesciat in
peragendis mysteriis ipsa ligna altaris linteamine operiri (Cont. Parmen.,
I, VI)." This cloth, sometimes also called "Palla Corporalis," and made of
pure linen, covered the whole altar. It was a general custom which can be
proved in Egypt, Gaul, Africa, and Rome, as well as in Spain (Isid. of
Pelus., Ep., CXXIII, "Ad Dorotheum comitem;" Gregory of Tours, "Hist.," I,
VII, c. xxii.; Optatus of Milevia, "Cont. Parmen.," I, VI; "Ordo Romanus,"
in Mabillon, ii. n. 9; cf. P.L., Vol. LXXXV, col. 339).
While the choir sang the "Sacrificium" the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons
received the oblations of the people --bread and wine. The men first made
their offering, in order of dignity, then the women, the Priests, Deacons,
clerics, the Bishop himself offering last of all. Great precautions were
taken that the bread should not be touched by hand. The Bishop and Priests
received the bread upon the "Offertorium," or "Oblatorium," a vase of
silver, gold, or copper. At Rome the "Oblatorium" was replaced by a linen
cloth held by two acolytes. The people themselves were not allowed to touch
the offerings, which were presented in a linen cloth. These loaves of pure
wheat might originally have been leavened, but the use of unleavened bread
was established in Spain as elsewhere (cf. Lesley's note, loc. cit., col.
As to the wine, it was presented in small flagons or other receptacles. The
Deacons poured it all into a great chalice destined for this purpose. They
next took from the offerings of bread and wine what would be necessary for
Communion, and kept the rest. Those loaves intended for Holy Communion were
placed on a paten and the paten upon the altar; the wine was put into the
chalice and mixed with water. Sometimes there were of necessity many
chalices and patens upon the altar. The paten was not given to the sub-
Deacon as in the Roman rite. The Deacons then covered the oblations with a
pallium, which was usually made of silk embroidered with gold; this was
called "Coopertorium," "Palla," or "Palla Corporalis." There was a prayer,
"ad extendum corporalia." The other prayers found in the Mozarabic books
for these different acts are of a later epoch. In Spain, as in Gaul and
Rome, these various acts in primitive days were not accompanied by prayers
P.L., loc. cit., col. 340, and Lesley's note, ibid.).
The Oblation finished, the Bishop returned to his throne and washed his
hands. This is also an ancient custom, which is attested both by the
"Apostolic Constitutions" (I, VIII, c. xi.) and by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Catech. myst., V). In Spain it was the Deacon who served at this office,
while the sub-Deacon offered water to the Priests and Deacons for the same
purpose. The Bishop then returned to the altar, gave the signal for
stopping the singing of the "Sacrificium," and said "Adjuvate me, fratres;"
after which he recited the "Accedam ad te" which belongs to the class of
"Apologiae sacerdotis" (P.L., loc. cit., col. 113, and article "Apologies"
in DACL. On the differences between these rites and the modifications which
they underwent in the Mozarabic liturgy during the Middle Ages, see
Lesley's note, col. 535).
"Missa."--The Priest usually said with the "Dominus sit semper vobiscum"
another prayer called "Missa." It is the first of the seven prayers of St.
Isidore ("De Offic.," I, I c. xiv.). Etherius and Beatus describe it in
these terms "Prima oratio admonitionis erga populum est, ut omnes
excitentur ad orandum Deum "("Adv. Elipand.," I, I). It is plainly an
opening prayer, the opening of the Mass of the Faithful, a prayer to
prepare them for the Sacrifice. It varies according to the Feasts and
liturgical epochs and is addressed sometimes to the faithful, "dilectissimi
fratres;" sometimes to God the Father or to Our Lord (P.L., col. 113; cf.
346 and 539). The Missal of Bobbio gives a similar prayer, but this often
has no title. Once it is called (as here) "Missa;" another time
"Collectio," and twice, "Praefatio." In the other Gallican Sacramentaries
it is called "Praefatio," or "Praefatio Missae." The title "Oratio" is also
given to it in the "Missale Mixtum" (P.L., col. 539)
The "Missa" is sometimes an invocation of the Father or the Son; sometimes
a series of pious exclamations; sometimes again a lyrical chant in honor of
the mystery or of the martyr whose Feast the Church is celebrating.
Sometimes it is preceded by an "Apologia sacerdotis." After the "Missa" the
clergy responded: "Agie, agie, agie," etc. Then the Priest said: "Erigite
vos" ("Liber ordinum," cols. 234, 235, and 186, 191; "Liber Sacramentorum
Mozarabicus," p. xx.).
"Prayer of the Faithful.-"-After the prayer the people said Amen, and the
Priest added these words: "Per misericordiam tuam," etc. Then, raising his
hands: "Oremus," to which the choir responded: "Agyos, Agyos, Agyos, Domine
Deus, Rex aeterne tibi laudes et gratias. Postea dicat Presbyter: Ecclesiam
sanctam catholicam in orationibus in mente habeamus . . . omnes lapsos,
captivos, infirmos, atque peregrinos in mente habeamus: ut eos Dominus,"
etc. In the "Liber Mozarabicus" this prayer is simply called "alia oratio,"
or even "alia" (cf. p. xxi.). The choir responded: "Presta eterne
omnipotens Deus." The Priest continued: "Purifica Domine Deus Pater
omnipotens" . . . making mention of the Priests who offered, of the Pope,
and all Priests and other clerics. The commemoration of Apostles and
Martyrs followed, their names being enumerated. In all these prayers the
choir intervened with occasional acclamations (P.L., loc. cit., col. 113).
The "Liber Offerentium," called by the Mozarabites the "Little Missal,"
contains this prayer under a very much better form, and Lesley's notes must
correct that which he gives in col. 113. The "Liber Offerentium" has been
included in the "Missale Mixtum"(P.L., cols. 530-569. The "Prayer of the
Faithful" will be found in col. 539 seq.). These different prayers, from
the first "Per misericordiam tuam . . . Oremus," would seem to tend towards
the second prayer of the Mass defined by St. Isidore: "Secunda (oratio)
invocationis ad Deum est, ut clementer suscipiat preces fidelium,
oblationemque eorum." Here indeed can be recognised the principal features
of that Prayer of the Faithful, or Litanic Prayer, which in the beginning
could be found in all liturgies. The Greek and Eastern liturgies have kept
it, but in the Roman it has almost disappeared except in the solemn prayers
on Good Friday, which give us the Prayer of the Faithful under one of its
most ancient and perfect forms. In the Mozarabic Missal it is not given
with anything like the same clearness; and has probably been retouched
again and again. The expression "Ecclesiam sanctam catholicam in
orationibus in mente habeamus" recalls that of St. Fructuosus in 259: "In
mente me habere necesse est sanctam Ecclesiam catholicam ab oriente usque
ad occidentem diffusam" (in Ruinart, "Acta Mart.," p. 222).
In the manuscripts the reading of the names appears to be considered as a
separate rite, under the title of "Nomina offerentium. The list of the
names of the living was followed by that of the dead. Usually the Deacon,
or the Priest himself, read this list; but sometimes it fell to one of the
"Cantores." "Transfer haec nomina in pagina coeli, que levitarum et
cantorum tuorum offcis recitata sunt, in Libro vivorum digito tuo," we read
in the "Liber Mozarabicus" (ed. Ferotin, col. 546, and Introduction, p.
"Oratio post nomina."--This is the name of the prayer which follows. The
preceding prayer had comprised the reading of the names of those who
offered, and of the dead: "item pro spiritibus pausantium" (P.L., loc.
cit., col. 114). It is the third in the order followed by St. Isidore, and
he defines it thus: "Tertia autem, effunditur pro offerentibus sive pro
defunctis fidelibus, ut per id sacrificium veniam consequantur." Like the
preceding prayers, its text varies according to the Feasts. We may note
that here the Memento of the Dead is not separated from that of the living,
as in the Roman Mass. Moreover, the Spanish diptychs do not only contain
the names of Apostles and Martyrs, but also those of Old Testament Saints,
Patriarchs, and Prophets (ibid., col. 483 and note). This also was the
custom of the Gallican churches, and Venantius Fortunatus has rightly said:
"Nomina vestra legat patriarchis atque prophetis 'Quos hodie in templo
diptychus edit ebur.'"
(I, X, carm. vii.)
(See also the prayer "Post nomina" for the Feast of St. Leger, note 68, p.
283.) We find the same custom in many of the Greek and Eastern liturgies.
St. Cyril of Jerusalem had said: "Recordamus patriarcharum prophetarum . .
. ut Deus eorum precibus et intercessione orationem nostram suscipiat"
("Catech., V;" Lesley refers in a note to these different liturgies, col.
483). The prayer "Post nomina," in the Gallican liturgies, presents
characteristic analogies. It was the Deacon who read the Diptychs, the
Priest following with the prayer (P.L., col. 375).
In connection with the prayer "Post nomina," Dom Ferotin rightly calls
attention to that Secret of the Roman Missal: "Deus cui soli cognitus est
numerus electorum in superna felicitate locandus . . . et omnium fidelium
nomina beatae praedestinationis liber adscripta retineat," which is a true
"Oratio post nomina." He is mistaken in calling it a quadragesimal
"Secret;" it belongs to the Mass of the Dead, and there can be no doubt as
to its Gallican origin, as well as to that of the Collect and Post-
communion which accompany it (Dom Ferotin, "Liber Mozarabicus," p. xxi.).
We may also notice the very long "Oratio post nomina," which is a homily in
itself, drawn up towards the end of the seventh century by St. Julian of
Toledo, and which was imposed on all Priests by a contemporary Council of
Toledo to end an intolerable abuse. There was a question as to whether
certain priests did not, in the "Oratio post nomina," pray for the death of
their enemies. The text of St. Julian's prayer is a long and vehement
protestation against such criminal maneuvers (see the 5th Canon of the
XVIIth Council of Toledo in 694. The prayer is in the "Liber Ordinum,"
cols. 331-334. Cf. also "Liber Mozarabicus" p. xxi.).
"Oratio ad pacem."--This is thus defined by St. Isidore: "Quarta post haec
infertur pro osculo pacis." The Kiss of Peace is placed close to the
Communion in the Roman Mass; in Spain, as also in Gaul and in the East, it
precedes the Consecration, and even the "Illatio."
It may be said that it is attached to the Prayer of the Faithful, of which
it was the natural conclusion. Primitively, the Kiss of Peace must have
been frequent, and have formed a part of every synaxis. It must have been
fixed at this place in the Mass at an early date, and it was also natural
that it should precede the Communion. Perhaps it took place twice in
certain churches, in that case one of the two rites must soon have been
suppressed as useless. However it may have been in primitive practice, as
to which we have not sufficient information we see this singularity
mentioned in the Roman rite with regard to the place of the Kiss of Peace
at a very early date, in contradistinction from the other Latin liturgies
as well as the Eastern. I have mentioned the following very significant
fact elsewhere: in the "Traditio Apostolica" of St. Hippolytus, which
represents the Roman liturgy at the beginning of the third century, the
Kiss of Peace, according to general custom, is attached to the Prayer of
the Faithful: "Et postea" (he is speaking of the neophytes who had just
received Baptism) "jam simul cum omni populo orent, non primum orantes cum
fidelibus, nisi omnia haec fuerint consecuti. Et cum oraverint, de ore
pacem offerant. Et tunc iam offeratur oblatio a diaconibus. Didascaliae
Apostolorum fragmenta veronensia latina" (ed. E. Hauler, Leipzig, 1900, PP.
III, 112). The suppression of the Prayer of the Faithful in the Roman Mass,
at the moment when the Roman Canon as we have it to-day was established,
must have brought about this change in the place of the Kiss of Peace, as
no doubt it brought about many others.
Here, as in many other circumstances the Mozarabic Mass represents customs
earlier than those of that of Rome. The "Oratio ad pacem" and the Kiss of
Peace were attached to a whole which St. Isidore describes by the words
"post haec," i.e. the prayers "Per misericordiam," "Ecclesiam sanctam,"
"Purifica Domine" (or prayer of oblation), the memorial of the holy Saints,
Patriarchs, Apostles, Martyrs, etc., the reading of the Diptychs of the
living and the dead with the prayer "Post nomina." Only then, and quite
logically, came the prayer for peace, and the Kiss of Peace (P.L., loc.
cit., col. 115). It goes without saying that the title "Oratio ad Patrem
"is a typographical error for "ad Pacem," as Lesley has already noted. In
this the Spanish custom was the same as that of the Gallican churches,
where an "Oratio ad pacem" followed the "Oratio post nomina," and preceded
the "Illatio" or "Contestatio." In all these liturgies the text of the
Oratio ad pacem varies according to the Feasts. In all, those prayers are
always about peace, or the oblations. The Greek and Eastern liturgies also
have this "Oratio ad pacem" followed by the Kiss of Peace (see these
connections in Lesley's note, P.L., col. 505).
According to the "Liber Ordinum" we see that the Deacon intervened at the
Kiss of Peace with these words: Inter vos pacem tradite." The Council of
Compostella (1056) alludes (c. 1) to the same usage ("Liber Ord.," col.
191; cf. "Liber Mozar.," p. xxi.). While this was going on the choir sang
"Pacem relinquo vobis," or some other anthem of the same kind. The same
book gives a formula of "Ad Pacem" in which the prayer is preceded by an
invocation, as is often the case in this, and also in the Gallican liturgy
("Lib. Ordin.," col. 236).
2. THE SACRIFICE.--The prayer of the anaphora, or Eucharistic prayer
properly so called, begins after all this preparation.
"Illatio."--This rite in the Mozarabic liturgy bears the name of "Inlatio,"
or "Illatio;" and St. Isidore defines it in these terms: "Quinta infertur
illatio in sanctificatione oblationis in quam etiam Dei laudem, terrestrium
creatura, virtutum coelestium universitatis provocatur, et Osanna in
Ecclesiis cantatur." It is preceded by a dialogue which differs from that
in the Roman Mass. The Priest, bending forward with his hands joined, says:
"Introibo ad altare Dei;" the choir: "Ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem
meam." The Priest, laying his hands on the chalice, says: "Aures ad
Dominum," the choir answering: "Habemus ad Dominum." The Priest then says:
"Sursum corda;" the choir: "Levemus ad Dominum." The Priest bending forward
with joined hands: "Deo ac Domino nostro Jesu Christo filio Dei qui est in
coelis dignas laudes dignasque gratias referamus." Here he raises his hands
towards Heaven (P.L., loc. cit., col. 115). The Mozarabic Illatio," like
the Roman Preface or the Gallican "Contestatio," always ends with the
"Sanctus," and in Spain, as in Gaul, but unlike Rome, the "Sanctus" is
followed by a prayer always called "Post Sanctus." For St. Isidore the
"Illatio" or fifth prayer, comprehends the "Sanctus," the "Post Sanctus,"
and also the Consecration. The sixth prayer is that of the "Post pridie,"
or "Confirmatio Sacramenti." This division seems just, for it marks clearly
the close union of all these parts, from the "Illatio" to the end of the
Consecration. Again it is better suited to the title "Immolatio" which is
that of the Gallican Prefaces, the word being a good synonym for
As to the word "Illatio," it is characteristic of the Mozarabic books. Some
have attempted to prove that it is a copyist's error for "Immolatio,"
which, as has been said, is the Gallican title of the Preface, which can be
explained naturally. But it is curious that if it be a copyist's error it
should be so universal, for the word is found in all the Mozarabic books.
The Preface is called "Illatio" everywhere; nor do I believe the word
"Immolatio" has ever been found there, except once in the "Liber Ordinum."
The question is curious, and perhaps deserves a separate study. "Illatio,"
or "Inlatio," like "Oblatio" (which is a synonym), is almost the exact
translation of the word "anaphero," to offer. In the post-classic tongue
the word "Inlatio" (from "inferre") means the action of carrying, like
"Invectio," and is specially applied to the dead (Ulpien); it also
signifies the paying of tribute. In philosophic language an "Illatio" is a
conclusion drawn from premisses, "ex duobus sumptis ratione sibimet nexis
conficitur illatio" (Capella). In Spain the word is used in the Councils in
the sense of gift, present, tribute (Third Council of Braga, can. 2; and
Seventh Council of Toledo). Thus the term "Immolatio" of the Gallican
liturgies is something quite different, which may be a corruption, or, if
we like, a paleographic interpretation of the word "Illatio." This is the
opinion of Dom Cagin ("Les noms latins de la preface eucharistique," in
"Rassegna Gregoriana," 1906, PP. 322-358) and also that to which Lesley was
inclined (cf. P.L., Vol. LXXXV, col. 507). But so far this is only a
hypothesis founded on the similarity of the two words. It remains to be
explained why one is exclusively used in the Mozarabic MSS. and the other
almost exclusively in the Gallican.
On this point the latter are less exclusive than the former. In the
"Missale Gothicum" as well as in the "Missale Gallicanum Immolatio"
alternates with "Contestatio" and "Praefatio Missae;" it is not found at
all in the "Missale Francorum," and only once in the Missal of Bobbio, and
then, as it would seem, by accident (cf. "Paleographie musicale," Vol. V,
PP. 100, 101, and 168). The word is absent, as well as "Contestatio," in
the letters of the pseudoGermain, and it may well be that this is a fresh
argument in favor of the recent date of these pretended letters (cf.
"Germain, Lettres de Saint," in DACL). The glossaries and "Thesauri,"
Ducange, Forcellini, Freund, and the "Thesaurus linguae latinae" of Leipzig
give but very insufficient information on this subject, under the word
Of the dialogue which precedes the "Illatio" we shall say nothing. It
contains what we may call the essential elements which may be found in all
liturgies, "Sursum corda," "Gratias agamus," etc., and those which serve as
the opening of all Prefaces: "Vere dignum et justum est," etc. To the
sobriety of the dialogue of the Roman Preface the Spanish liturgy, as
always, adds ornaments and complications which only serve to overload the
We are obliged to say the same thing of the "Illatio" itself. The Mozarabic
books offer the richest and most varied collection of "Illationes;" hardly
a Mass but has its own; some of them comprise many columns of text, and if
they were sung, these must have lasted at least half an hour. We will
attempt presently to discover their authors. But we may say at once that
they form a dogmatic collection which is priceless for the study of
theological history in Spain during the Middle Ages, and a collection
which, it must be confessed, has as yet been but little studied. It
contains pages which do honor to the learning, the depth, and the culture
of Spanish theologians from the fifth-ninth centuries. We have treated the
question of the orthodoxy of this liturgy elsewhere (see "Liturgia," p.
816). Here and there we do doubtless find a few singular opinions, but
taken as a whole what riches of doctrine, what fervor of faith and piety i
Here are real theological theses, and long panegyrics for the Feasts of
Saints, especially for the Saints of Spain, like St. Vincent or St.
Eulalia. We will mention only the "Illationes" on the Samaritan, on the man
born blind, on fasting, on the Trinity, on the Descent into hell, on the
Patriarchs, etc. (The first of these are in the "Liber Sacramentorum,"
edited by Dom Ferotin, pp. 167, 178, 184, 224, and 290; that on the
Patriarchs in P.L., Vol. LXXXV, cols. 271 and 287. See also the "Illatio"
on the Trinity, col. 281.)
Naturally the same faults which we have already pointed out in all the
other parts of this liturgy are found here; they are those of the Latin
literature of Spain, especially from the sixth-tenth centuries--prolixity,
verbiage, the abuse of verbal conceits and plays on words--in fact, all
those faults which have been decorated with the name of Gongorism.
"The Sanctus."--The "Illatio" always ends by a transition to the "Sanctus."
This "Sanctus" of the Mozarabic Mass is not invariable, as it is in the
Roman liturgy and most others. In their love of variety the Mozarabic
authors often introduced changes. This is the ordinary form:
"Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth: pleni sunt celi et terra
gloria majestatis tue: Osanna filio David: Osanna in excelsis. Benedictus
qui venit in nomine Domini: Osanna in excelsis" (P.L., loc. cit., col.
The singing of the Sanctus is assigned to the choir in the Mozarabic books.
Formerly both in Spain and in Gaul the "Sanctus" was sung by the people.
Thus we have in a "Post Sanctus" the words: "Psallitur" (hymnus iste) "ab
angelis, et hic solemniter decantatur a populis" ("Post Sanctus" of the
fifth Sunday in Lent, P.L., col. 376). Gregory of Tours says in his turn:
"Ubi expeditur contestatione omnis populus sanctus in Dei laudem pro
clamavit" ("De mir. S. Martini," I, II, c. xiv.). The Eastern liturgies
formerly had the same custom, as we see by the "Apostolic Constitutions,"
and by the texts of St. John Chrysostom and of St. Gregory of Nyssa, quoted
by Lesley (col. 349). The texts quoted prove that it was sung in Spain half
in Latin, half in Greek. The same usage obtained in Gaul.
"Post Sanctus and Consecration."--The title "Post Sanctus," both in Spain
and in Gaul, always designates a prayer which is a paraphrase of the
"Sanctus," and which usually begins with the words "Vere sanctus." It is a
transition from the "Sanctus" to the Consecration; and is also found,
though without a title, in the Greek and Eastern liturgies. In Spain it
varied daily (see, for example, P.L., col. 549).
"Vere sanctus" did not end formerly with a doxology, but went straight on
to "Qui pridie," by a short formula of this kind: "Vere sanctus, vere
benedictus Dominus noster Jesus Christus qui pridie," with the words of
Institution. The "Qui pridie" was the Roman formula, as also that of the
Gallican and all the Latin churches. The ancient Spanish liturgy followed
the same tradition. By a change wrought in the Mozarabic liturgy at a date
which cannot be fixed, one of the most audacious changes of which that rite
has preserved the trace, the sacred formula was broken into by the
introduction of the prayer "Adesto Jesu bone," and by replacing the "Qui
pridie," one of the most striking and characteristic features of the Roman
and other Latin liturgies, by the "In qua nocte," which is the version
followed by all the Greek and Eastern rites. What is perhaps even more
extraordinary, the reformers did not try to conceal the traces of this
change, but continued to call the prayer which follows the recital of the
Institution, "Oratio post pridie!" We give here the text of the "Adesto:"
"Adesto, adesto Jesu bone Pontifex in medio nostri: sicut fuisti in medio
discipulorum tuorum: sanctitfica hanc oblationem: ut sanctificata sumamus
per manus sancti angeli tui sancte domine ac redemtor eterne (here there is
a gap in the Missale Mixtum). Dominus noster Jesus Christus in qua nocte
tradebatur accepit panem: et gratias agens, benedixit ac fregit: deditque
discipulis suis dicens: Accipite et manducate. Hoc: est: corpus: meum:
quod: pro: vobis: tradetur. Hic elevatur corpus. Quotiescumque
manducaveritis: hoc facite in meam commemorationem. Similiter et calicem
postquam cenavit dicens. Hic est: calix: novi: testamenti: in: meo:
sanguine: qui: pro: vobis: et: pro: multis: effundetur: in: remissionem:
peccatorum. Hic elevatur calix coopertus cum filiola (=palla).
Quotiescumque biberitis hoc facite in meam commemorationem. Et cum
perventum fuerit ubi dicit: In meam commemorationem, dicat presb. alta voce
omnibus diebus preter festivis: pari modo ubi dicit in claritatem de celis.
Ut qualibet vice respondeat chorus: Amen. Quotiescumque manducaveritis
panem hunc et calicem biberitis: mortem Domini annunciabitis donec veniet.
In claritatem de celis. Chorus. Amen" (P.L., loc. cit., cols. 116--117; cf.
also col. 550, another text).
In the later editions of the "Missale Mixtum" a note has been added to the
effect that the form of Consecration here given is only a memorial of the
past, but that at the present time the Roman form must be adhered to
(ibid., cols. 116, and 550, 551, note a).
Dom Ferotin gives two new texts of the words of Institution according to
the Liber Mozarabicus and the Liber Ordinum," which present many variants,
not only with each other but with the "Missale Mixtum." It can be seen that
Rome did not approve the version given in the "Missale Mixtum" of 1500, and
substituted for it the Roman formula. That extremely rare edition of Todole
preserved at the British Museum contains, fastened to the vellum, this
note: "Forma ista consecrationis ponitur ne antiquitas ignoretur; sed hodie
servetur Ecclesiae traditio;" and the Roman formula is then given. (This
note is reproduced in P.L., cols. 116 and 550. On all this cf. Dom Ferotin,
"Liber Mozarabicus," p. xxv.) In two MSS. quoted by Dom Ferotin the words
of Institution are preceded by the title "Missa secreta;" and he gives
another example in which the "Post Sanctus" is called "Post Missam
secretam," which clearly show that at that time this part of the Canon was
said in a low voice (ibid.).
The very tenor of this prayer shows that it interrupts the sequence of the
"Vere sanctus," and repeats the formula "Dominus noster Jesus Christus." It
is quite evidently an interpolation, a fact which has been emphasized by
the greater number of modern liturgiologists since Le Brun, Binius, Lesley,
Dom Ferotin, Dom Cagin, etc. But no protestations seem to have been raised
in the Middle Ages; at least I do not think that any signs of them have
been traced up till now. Without seeking for any other explanation, it must
simply be stated that at a certain moment, assuredly later than St. Isidore
and probably before the tenth century--probably also at Toledo--a Bishop
thought well to borrow, from the liturgy of Constantinople, which had
already lent so much to Spain, the actual form of Consecration, and this he
then substituted for the ancient form which was that of Rome and of all
Latin churches (P.L., loc. cit., col 549).
The actual formula, "Hoc est corpus meum," is borrowed from I Cor. xi. 24;
while the "quod pro vobis" is the translation of the Vulgate. The Roman
formula, "Hoc est enim corpus meum," conforms to that in the liturgy of St.
Mark; and it seems also to have been that of the Gallican churches, at
least, according to the letters of the pseudo Germain. The formula for the
Consecration of the wine is borrowed from I Cor. xi. 24, and from St. Luke
xxii. 20, and St. Matthew xxvi. 28. The words "Hic est calix novi
Testamenti in meo sanguine" are those of an ancient Latin version different
from the Vulgate; they are quoted under the same form by Sedulius Scotus
and by Gregory II (see the quotation, P.L., loc. cit., col. 551). The Roman
formula, "Hic est enim calix sanguinis mei," etc., was also that of the
Gallican churches. The Spanish liturgiologists of that day were not afraid
to paraphrase the words of Institution in their own way. (On all this see
Lesley's note, col. 551 seq.)
It is stated in the rubrics of the recital of the Institution that there
was a double elevation. The custom of the elevation is universal, but it
was not practiced everywhere in the same way. That here mentioned is
conformable with the usage established in France in the eleventh century,
which thence spread, with certain variants, to Rome and to other churches.
The Mozarabic rubric shows that the chalice was covered at the elevation;
that is, covered with the "palla," or veil, sometimes called the
"Offertorium," because it had been used to collect the offerings of the
faithful at the Oblation. This was formerly the Roman custom when the
elevation took place at the end of the Canon after the "Per ipsum" (cf. the
first "Ordo Romanus" of Mabillon, note 16, and the "Ordo" published by
Another rubric which prescribes the words "In meam commemorationem" and "In
claritatem de celis" to be said aloud would give the impression that the
actual words of the Institution were to be said in a low voice. But Lesley
thinks with apparent reason that this rubric is recent, and that the
Spanish, like the French, said these words aloud. As to the words "In
claritatem de celis," they are another peculiarity of the Mozarabic rite.
On Holy Thursday the Epistle was read from I Cor. xi. 20-34. After the
words "mortem Domini annunciabitis donec veniat" they added this variant:
"in claritatem de celis" taken from the liturgy, but which does not exist
in the Vulgate, or in the Greek, or in any other version with which we are
acquainted (see P.L., col. 409, for the text of the Epistle, and col. 552
for the rubric).
"Oratio Post pridie" and "Epiclesis."--The prayer Post pridie, which
follows the Consecration, corresponds with that called "Post secreta," or
"Post mysterium" in the Gallican books. St. Isidore speaks of it in these
terms: "Ex hinc sexta oratio succedit, confirmatio sacramenti, ut oblatio
quae Domino offertur, per Spiritum Sanctum sanctificata Christi corporis et
sanguinis confirmetur" ("De offic.," I, I, c. xv.; cf. Etherius and Beatus,
who emphasize the terms "Confirmatio sacramenti"). It should be noted that
the Missal of Bobbio has no prayer "Post secreta," which is also missing
occasionally in the "Missale Gallicanum" as well as in the "Missale
Gothicum." But on the other hand it is always found in the "Missale
Mixtum," and as it varies daily, and is sometimes very long, we have here,
as in the "Illatio," one of those prayers in which the exuberance of the
Spanish Fathers has had free course. Both the place and the function of
this prayer Confirmatio Sacramenti "are more propitious than those of the
"Illatio" for dogmatic developments. It will be found of great use in the
study of the doctrine of the Spanish church upon the Eucharist, notably
upon Transubstantiation and the questions connected with it. In reality the
prayer answers to the "Epiclesis" of the Eastern liturgies, and, as we have
remarked elsewhere, the expressions here used must often be interpreted
"cum grano salis." We can note only a few of such examples here, as in
cols. 117 and 250, note 7; 519, note a (cf. also article "Liturgie," in
"Dict. de theol.," coL 812, and "Epiclese" in DACL).
Sometimes, but far more rarely, the "Epiclesis" is found in the "Post
sanctus." (There are some examples of this in Dom Ferotin's "Liber
Mozarabicus;" in the same Sacramentary the "Post pridie" is called "Post
missam secretam" on the vigil of Easter, a point worthy of remark.) On the
other hand, and speaking generally, the "Post pridie" often contains the
proof that the Consecration or Transubstantiation is accomplished by the
words of Institution. To this interpretation the elevation also bears
witness, but it is difficult to fix the date of this rite with the
Mozarabites. We may quote, as especially explicit, the following "Post
pridie: Hec pia, hec salutaris hostia, Deus Pater, qua tibi reconciliatus
est mundus. Hoc est corpus illud, quod pependit in cruce. Hic etiam
sanguis, qui sacro propluxit ex latere, etc." ("Liber Moz.," col. 313)
The prayer "Te prestante," which for the rest has no particular title,
seems rather the conclusion of the "Post pridie" than a separate prayer. As
we shall see, it resembles our "Per quem haec omnia bona creas." This is
"Te prestante sancte Domine: quia tu haec omnia nobis indignis servis tuis:
valde bona creas: sanctificas, vivificas benedicis ac prestas nobis: ut sit
(sint) benedicta a te Deo nostro in secula seculorum. Amen."
The Priest then takes the consecrated Host on the paten, holds it over the
uncovered chalice, and says, or sings: "Dominus sit semper vobiscum. Et cum
spiritu tuo. Fidem quam corde credimus ore autem dicamus," and he elevates
the consecrated Host to show It to the people. In some places there was
sung at this point an anthem: "Ad confractionem panis" (P.L., loc. cit.,
col. 117; cf. also p. 554 for the explanation of this prayer). Here, as in
the Ambrosian Missal, the "Haec omnia" seems to refer to the consecrated
elements of bread and wine, created by God, sanctified by prayer, vivified
by Consecration, blessed by the Holy Ghost (Epiclesis), and finally given
to the faithful in the Eucharist. This at least is the interpretation given
to these words by Lesley, who will not admit that of Benedict XIV and other
liturgiologists, who say that "Haec omnia" means the fresh fruits which
were blessed at this moment. It is an old quarrel amongst liturgiologists,
and one which seems as yet unresolved (Benedict XIV, "De missae
sacrificio," I, II, c. xviii.). Lesley admits that in certain
Sacramentaries these words may indeed apply to a blessing of this kind, but
only in a special case. In his opinion the words are too precise, the
gestures too solemn to be applied to anything but the elements consecrated
in the Eucharist (col. 553, note c).
It is a general custom that the Elevation should take place at this moment.
Before the eleventh century it was the principal Elevation. We may also
notice that in the Roman Missal the prayer is addressed to God the Father,
and that it closes with a magnificent doxology which has disappeared in the
"The Credo."--The Spanish were the first in the West to introduce the
symbol of Nicea-Constantinople into the Mass. In the East the custom
already existed, and in 568 Justinus the Younger made it a law. In 597 the
Third Council of Toledo issued an edict: "Ut prius quam Dominica dicatur
oratio, voce clara a populo" (symbolum Constantinopolitanum) "decantetur,
quo fides vera," etc. This is a fresh example of the eagerness shown by the
Spanish Bishops to follow the customs of Constantinople. From Spain the
usage spread into Gaul; but Rome held out long, and only yielded in the
eleventh century. The true place of this symbol is in the rite of Baptism
and it is not an essential element of the Mass. The Gallican churches sang
it after the Gospel, at the end of the Mass of the catechumens, and this
too is the place given to it by Rome. Like the Greeks and Orientals, the
Spanish, by putting it at the end of the Canon, before the "Pater," rather
disturbed the general equilibrium of this part of the Mass; and, moreover,
diminished accordingly the importance of the "Pater." This story of the
insertion of the "Credo" in the Mass is fairly well known; and we shall say
no more about it. (Cf. Mgr. Batiffol, "Lecons sur la Messe," p. II. See
also Lesley's note, which, as is always the case, is highly instructive,
and that of Dom Ferotin quoted on the next page. For rather curious
variants of the Spanish text--the "Credimus," the "Omousion," the "Ex Patre
et Filio procedentem," etc., cf. Lesley, P.L., loc. cit., col. 555 seq.,
and "Liber Moz.," col. 37.)
The "Liber Mozarabicus" contains a formula of introduction to the "Credo:
Omnes qui Christi sanguinis effusione," etc., which is not met with in any
printed book, nor even, according to Dom Ferotin, in any MS. ("Liber Moz.,"
"Fraction.-"-In the Mozarabic rite the Fraction is rather complicated. The
Priest divides the Host in the middle, placing half on the paten; the other
half is divided into five parts, which are also placed on the paten. He
then divides the first part into four. The nine particles so obtained are
arranged in the form of a Cross, and each receives its name: "Corporatio"
(or Incarnation), "Nativitas," "Circumcisio," "Apparitio" (or Epiphany),
"Passio," "Mors," "Resurrectio," and, separately, "Gloria," "Regnum." This
figure is twice given in P.L., loc. cit., cols. 118 and 557. St.
Ildephonsus alludes to the names of these fragments (De cognitione
baptismi, c. xix.; cf. "Liber Moz.," p. xxxiii.). It is unnecessary to say
that all these rites are not ancient, any more than it is an ancient
practice to make the Memento of the Living here, since at the beginning of
the Mass of the Faithful a Memento of the Living and the Dead has already
been made. When the "Credo" is finished the "Pater" is said. The Fraction
of the bread, a rite so important in its origin that it gave its name to
the Mass, has become here, as in the Celtic liturgies, so complicated as to
fall sometimes into mere superstition; it is usually accompanied by the
singing of the "Confractio," which is to be found in most liturgies. In
this rite it is called "Laudes ad confractionem." (Cf. "Liber Ordinum," col
239, and "Liber Moz.," p. xxiii. Cf. also our article "Fraction," in DACL,
and P.L., cols. 118 and 557.)
"The Pater."--The "Pater" is recited in the Mozarabic Mass as it is in most
liturgies. It is preceded by a prelude which varies according to the day;
it is almost always a paraphrase analogous to the Roman prelude, but
generally more extensive and more complicated. The "Pater" ends with an
embolism of which we shall presently speak (P.L., col 118, cf. 559-591). It
is a rather singular thing that the prelude begins with the word "Oremus"
which is sung by the Priest. But this rubric is of a later age like that
which prescribes "Oremus" before "Agios." In the church of Spain in ancient
times it was the Deacon and not the Priest who said "Oremus;" the Deacon,
too, made the other interventions: "Flectamus genua, Erigite vos, Levate
aures ad Dominum, Silentium facite." St. Isidore says of the Deacons: "Hi
voces tonitruorum, ipsi enim, clara voce, in modum praeconis, admoneant
cunctos sive in orando, sive in flectendo genua, sive in psallendo, sive in
lectionibus audiendo," etc. ("De offic. eccl.," I, II, c. viii.). Etherius
also alludes to them ("Adv. Elipand.," I, I). The same custom is noted by
the pseudo-Germain (cf. col. 1079)
The presence of the "Pater" in the Mass in most liturgies, since the fourth
century at least, is a well-known fact. In Spain, however, certain Priests
only said it on Sunday. The Fourth Council of Toledo, therefore, proclaimed
it of daily obligation (Canon 10). But it was not said everywhere in the
same manner. In Spain the Priest begins "Pater noster qui es in coelis,"
and the people answer "Amen," and so on with all the petitions. At "Panem
nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie" they respond: "Quia tu es Deus;" and
after the word "tentationem," at the end: "Sed libera nos a malo, Amen."
The "Pater" is the seventh and last of the prayers of the Mass according to
St. Isidore ("De offic.," I, I, c. xv.; P.L., loc. cit., coL 559 seq.).
The embolism is not variable as it is with the Gallicans. It is a
paraphrase of the last petition in the form of a liturgical prayer,
"Liberati a malo," etc. (P.L., col 119). The "Liberati" is sung, like the
"Pater;" the same custom obtains in the rite of Lyons, and even in that of
Rome on Good Friday.
"Commixtion."--After the embolism the Priest takes from the paten that fragment of the Host which corresponds to "Regnum" (see "Fraction, ut
sup."), holds it over the chalice, and lets it fall therein with the words:
"Sancta sanctis et conjunctio corporis Domini nostri Jesu Christi: sit
sumentibus et potantibus nobis ad veniam: et fidelibus defunctis prestetur
ad requiem." From Easter to Pentecost he said instead, with a loud voice,
thrice these words: "Vicit leo de tribu Juda radix David," to which the
people responded: "Qui sedes super Cherubim radix David, Alleluia" (P.L.,
loc. cit., col 119).
The "Sancta sanctis" is an ancient Eastern formula, to which St. Cyril of
Jerusalem alluded; it is preserved in the greater number of Eastern
liturgies. It loses a little of its strength here, because it is said in a
low voice, and because it forms part of the prayer of "Commixtion." Lesley
rightly supposes that formerly the "Sancta sanctis" was said aloud in Spain
and in Gaul, as it was with the Easterns, and that it was followed, as in
Gaul, by the singing of the "Trecanum," a hymn in honor of the Trinity.
With the Easterns also the "Sancta sanctis" is a doxology (P.L., loc. cit.,
col 561, note a). We may note that Dom Martene has pointed out in two MSS.
of Angers the formulas: "Sanctum cum sanctis," and "Sancta cum sanctis et
commixtio," etc. ("De ant. Eccl. Rit.," I, I c. iv. art. 9).
As for the formula of Commixtion, "et sanguinis" must naturally be added to
"corporis," as "potantibus nobis" suggests. It corresponds with the same
rite in the Roman Canon, "Haec commixtio et consecratio corporis et
sanguinis," etc., and to that of the Ambrosian Canon which is almost the
same. The rite of "Commixtio" itself is ancient, and common to most
liturgies, but here, as for the Fraction, a great variety of customs
exists. We content ourselves with referring to our article "Messe," in
which these different customs are noticed. The note may also be read in
which Lesley describes and compares these rites (loc. cit., coL 561, note
c, cf. also "Liber Ordinum," pp. 239-241, and "Liber Moz.," p. xxiii.).
"Blessing."--The rite of Blessing in Spain, as in Gaul, is placed after the
"Pater." The Deacon warns the people: Humiliate vos benedictioni. Dominus
sit semper vobiscum. Et cum spiritu tuo." The Priest then blesses them with
a variable formula, which is interspersed with "Amens" like the "Pater"
(see, e.g., P.L., coL 119).
There are a few differences as to the exterior form of this blessing
between the churches of Gaul and those of Spain, but the fact of a blessing
at this moment is common to both of them; and in both cases the rites
present striking analogies. The African church had also this custom of
Episcopal blessing, as may be seen by the letter of the Council of Carthage
to Innocent I against Pelagius and Celestinus, and by letter CLXXXIX of St.
Augustine to John of Jerusalem. But neither the Roman liturgy nor those of
the Greek and Eastern churches followed this custom. We find, indeed,
formulas of Episcopal blessings in the Roman collections, but they are
Gallican additions. The Sixth Council of Toledo (c. 18) recalls the
practice of Spain in these words: "ut post orationem dominicam et
conjunctionem panis et calicis, benedictio in populum segnatur, et tum
demum sacramentum corporis et sanguinis Domini sumatur" (Canon 18, P.L.,
col. 592, note b).
"Communion.-"-The Communion in the Mozarabic rite comprehends a collection
of rites and formulas which must first be described: The salutation of the
people by "Dominus sit semper vobiscum;" singing of the "Gustate et videte"
and other verses, with doxology "Gloria et honor Patri." During the
chanting of the "Gustate" the Priest takes that particle of the Host which
answers to the word "Gloria," holds it over the chalice while reciting
"Panem celestem," and then says: "Memento pro mortuis," reciting the
prayer: "Dominus meus," etc.
He makes the sign of the Cross with the Host, consumes the particle which
was in his hand, covers the chalice, and consumes the other fragments of
the Host, following the appointed order. He then places the paten on the
chalice, saying: "Ave in evum celestis potus," etc. He takes the Blood, and
says the prayer: "Dominus meus Pater et Filius," etc. The choir sings
"Refecti corpore et sanguine." The Priest goes to the corner of the altar
and recites a prayer beginning with the words of the preceding chant:
"Refecti corpore et sanguine," etc. This is the prayer of Thanksgiving,
which closes with the doxology: Per misericordiam tuam, etc. (P.L., col.
120; ef. also cols. 554, 561, 566, and "Liber Ordinum," 241, 242 "Liber
Mozar.," p. xxiii.).
The Deacon intervenes at the Communion with the order: "Locis vestris
accedite." Each then must take his place according to a strictly
established order: higher clergy, lower clergy, men, women. To each of the
faithful he gives a part of the Blood, for Communion was received under
both kinds. The anthem "Gustate" is called "Ad accedentes."
"Completuria and end of the Mass.-"-The "Liber Mozarabicus" and the "Liber
Ordinum" sometimes contain after the Communion prayers an "Oratio
completuria," or simply, "Completuria," which recalls the Roman "Post-
communion." There are many examples of this ("Liber Ordinum," cols. 272,
273; "Liber Moz.," col 343, and pp. xxiii. and xxxv. and the Index at the
The end of the Mass is thus announced: the Priest salutes the people with
"Dominus sit," etc.; the Deacon says: "Solemnia completa sunt in nomine
Domini nostri Jesu Christi, votum nostrum sit acceptum cum pace. Deo
gratias" (P.L., loc. cit., col 120). In the "Liber Mozarabicus" the Deacon
says: "Missa acta est" (p. xxxv.).
GENERAL REMARKS.--We shall not point out the analogies between this Mass
and that of the Gallican rite; they are so self-evident that many
liturgiologists consider both liturgies as two branches from the same
trunk, or even as derived one from the other.
From this study of the Mozarabic Mass it may be concluded that this
particular liturgy was in a great measure a national one, like that of
Gaul, its sister. Many of its formulas were written by Spanish prelates;
certain rites also were created by them. For many centuries Toledo was the
center of what may truly be called a national liturgy. If ever a Spanish
Abbe Bremond writes the history of religious feeling in his own country --
as it has already been admirably written for France --the Mozarabic liturgy
will take the most important place therein, and all will be astonished at
the wealth, variety, and singularity of its formulas.
We shall not stop here to discuss the question of the orthodoxy of this
liturgy, since this has been fully argued by liturgiologists of the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; by Edmund Bishop, Dom Ferotin, Mgr.
Mercati, and Dom de Bruyne. It would take us too far from our subject. We
can only give here a Bibliography in which will be found the names of the
principal authors by whom the question has been discussed.