Mass Propers
Gregorian Chant
Dom Cabrol
Romano Guardini
Papal Documents


By the Right Reverend Dom Fernand Cabrol
Abbot of Farnborough Abbey



The Mozarabic liturgy,--Mozarabic books.--The Pre-Mass.--The Mass of the Faithful.--Remarks on this Mass.

The Mozarabic Liturgy

The Mozarabic liturgy is that which was followed in Spain before the Arab conquest in 712, and which, after that date, was still generally in use both by those Spanish who had submitted to the Arabs and by those others who, having withdrawn into the northern provinces, were able to retain their independence. The term "Mozarabic" (from musta'rab, or mixto-arabic, "mixed with the Arabs") only applies in reality to that part of the Spanish population which did submit to the Saracens. It is, strictly speaking, a mistake to use it to qualify the Spanish liturgy, since this existed in Spain previous to the Arab conquest; and, further, because it was also the liturgy of the free Spaniards in the north. Nevertheless, since this name is now well established, and is used by most authors, we think it best to retain it here. Further, the names of Visigothic rite, rite of Toledo, Hispanic, Gothic, or Spanish rite, by which it has been proposed to replace the word "Mozarabic" rite, are none of them in themselves perfectly correct.

In all cases this term denotes a liturgy which has been that of Spain from the beginning of her history; which was maintained in that country until the twelfth century, and which, even after its suppression, was still followed in a few churches, and in the sixteenth century was officially restored in the churches of Toledo, where at the present time it is still practiced.

Whatever we may think of its name, the Mozarabic liturgy itself is fairly well known to us. We may even say that, with the exception of the Roman liturgy, it is this which provides us with the greatest number of documents, and gives us the most important information, as may easily be verified by the paragraph in which these sources are enumerated.

This, however, is not the place to discuss the question of the origin and sources of these liturgical documents; we can but refer our readers to the article "Mozarabe" (liturgie) in DACL. It is enough to say that we are not now reduced (as was the case until recently) to the "Missale Mixtum" of Lesley, but that at present we have the "Liber Ordinum" (Missal and Pontifical) and the "Liber Mozarabicus Sacramentorum," both published by Dom Ferotin, and also the "Comes," or "Liber Comicus," published by Dom Morin. Thanks to these various documents we can easily reconstitute the Mozarabic Mass, and go back to an epoch which is almost that of its origin: let us say, the eighth, or even the seventh, century.[1]


PREPARATION.--The "Missale Mixtum" contains a Preparation for Mass which is given after the Mass for Easter (P.L., Vol. LXXXV, cols. 521-522). It comprehends a number of rites and prayers, washing of hands, four Ave Maria, prayers for the amice, the alb, girdle, maniple, stole, and chasuble, an "apologia," the psalm "Judica me" with the anthem "Introibo ad altare Dei," the confession of sins, the absolution, the prayer "Aufer a nobis," the signing of the altar with the cross and kissing it (which was formerly the kissing of the Cross present on the altar), and the prayer on extending the Corporal upon the altar and on the preparation of the chalice. Some of these rites and prayers are ancient, as may be seen by a comparison with the Gallican rites; others are of recent introduction. The preparation of the chalice and the Corporal formerly took place at the Offertory (cf. P.L., loc. cit., col. 339, and Lesley's notes on these passages).

INTROIT.--The Mass begins with the "Officium," called by the Gallicans "Antiphona ad praelegendum," in the Ambrosian rite, Ingressa, and at Rome, Introit, or "Antiphona ad introitum." It is composed of an anthem, the verse of a psalm, and a doxology, and is taken either from Holy Scripture or from the "Acta" of the Saint whose Feast is that day celebrated (cf. Tommasi, "Disquisitio de antiphona ad introitum Missae," and Lesley's note, P.L., col. 234). The doxology differs from that of Rome, and the "Semper" of "Per omnia" is also a feature of the Mozarabic rite. But in outline the Mozarabic "Officium" is closer to the Roman "Introit" than is the Ambrosian "Ingressa."

GLORIA IN EXCELSIS AND COLLECT.--The "Gloria in Excelsis" is enclosed at beginning and end by "Per omnia semper secula seculorum." It was sung in this rite on Sundays and Feast Days, as the Fourth Council of Toledo says (canon 12). Etherius and Beatus also state it (Ord. Elip., I, I; cf. also Lesley's note, P.L., loc. cit., col. 531). Later the Mozarabites omitted this hymn on the Sundays of Advent and Lent. It was also sung by the Gallicans, as may be seen by the Missal of Bobbio, and was followed by two prayers. In the Mozarabic rite, after the final "Per omnia," the Deacon cried "Oremus," and the Priest said a prayer. Later on this acclamation of the Deacon was suppressed, but not the Priest's prayer, which varied for the Sundays of Advent, Epiphany, Lent, Easter, Pentecost, and for the Feasts of Saints. The text of these various prayers will be found in the "Missale Mixtum," P.L., Vol. LXXXV, col. 531 seq. The text of the "Gloria" here given is the same as usual, but other forms do exist. (On this point see the discussion between Lebrun and Lesley, P.L., loc. cit., col. 33; and also Dom German Prado, "Una nueva recension del hymno Gloria in Excelsis" in "Ephemerides Liturg.," 1932, PP. 481-486.)

The Collect, here called "Oratio," is often directly addressed to Christ, as in the Gallican liturgies. Very often it is a paraphrase of the "Gloria in Excelsis." As a rule it has not the sobriety, the precision, nor the rhythm of the Roman Collect. Often it is merely a kind of pious effusion. We may take as a chance example the prayer for the Feast of St. Stephen (P.L., loc. cit., col. 190). After the oratio the Priest says:

"Per misericordiam tuam, Deus noster qui es benedictus: et vivis et omnia regis in secula seculorum. Amen. Dominus sit semper vobiscum. Et cum spiritu tuo."

READINGS.--On Fast Days in Spain the "Officium" was shortened, and Mass began with the Lessons, as it did formerly at Rome. St. Augustine, too, tells us that in Africa Mass began on Sunday with the reading of Holy Scripture.

We have one Lesson from the Old Testament, one from St. Paul, and the third is the Gospel. The first is called the "Prophecy," the second the "Epistle," or "Apostle," the third the "Gospel." But this order was not invariable. On Sundays the Prophecy was omitted, while during Lent and on Fast Days there were four Lessons, two from the Old, two from the New Testament. Again, from Easter to Pentecost the first Lesson was taken from the Apocalypse, that from the Old Testament being suppressed. The Gallicans had almost exactly the same custom with regard to their Lessons. At Rome, on the contrary (cf. Chap. IV), the readings were usually two in number, as they are to-day. St. Isidore tells us that the Prophecy was read by the Lector ("Epist. ad Ludifrid. Cordubensem." As to this custom, cf. Lesley's note, P.L., loc. cit., col. 251). After the first prayer the Priest saluted the people, and the Lector from a high place announced the title of the book, "Lectio libri Exodi," the people responding "Deo Gratias," making the sign of the Cross, and listening to the Lesson. After it was over they answered: "Amen" (St. Isidore, "Offic.," I, I, c. x., and I, II, c. xi.). The Priest added, as he did after the prayer: "Dominus sit semper vobiscum. Et cum spiritu tuo."

PSALLENDO.--After the Prophecy is chanted the Canticle of the Three Children, with the first verse of the psalm "Confitemini," as was also the custom in the Gallican liturgy. The Lectionary of Luxeuil says: "Daniel cum benedictione", as also does the author of the Letters of St. Germain. The same order is recalled by the Fourth Council of Toledo (can. 14). After the "Benedictus es" the Priest began to intone the Psalm "Confitemini," which was continued by choir and people (see the "Missale Mixtum," P.L., loc. cit., col. 297 and note). According to the MSS. the "Benedictus es," which was sung in responses, shows a large number of variations. The "Psallendo," which comes next, is a responsory sung by the Precentor from a pulpit. St. Isidore calls it "responsoria," while in Gaul it was called "Psalmus responsorius "(St. Isidore, "Offic.," Gregory of Tours, "Hist. Franc.," I, VIII, c. iii). It has sometimes been confused with the Roman Gradual, but it differs from this in certain characteristics (cf. Lesley, P.L., loc. cit., col. 257).

TRACT.--The ancient Mozarabic books contain a Tract, "Tractus," which was sung from the ambone by the Psalmist. Like the Roman Tract it had neither repetition nor interruption, and was sung to a very simple melody. It differed from the Roman Tract, because that of the Gregorian rite follows the Gradual and takes the place of the "Alleluia," while the Mozarabic Tract holds the place of the "Psallendo" (Lesley, col. 306. Cf. Tommasi, "Responsoralia et antiphonaria Romance Ecclesiae," p. 32 seq., Rome, 1686).

DIACONAL PRAYERS.--The "Missale Mixtum" contains a rubric after the "Psallendo," requiring the Priest to prepare the chalice by putting in wine and water, to place the Host upon the paten and put that upon the chalice, and, lastly, to say the "Preces: Indulgentiam postulamus." But this is a recent rubric, and according to St. Isidore (Epist. ad Ludifr. Cordub.) it was the place of the Deacon to prepare the chalice and to say the "Preces" (cf. Lesley, loc. cit., col. 297). In his note Lesley confuses these "Preces diaconales" with the "Prayer of the Faithful," which is quite different. These diaconal prayers have great interest for the student of liturgical history; they are a relic of the past, still preserved in the Eastern liturgies, but of which but few traces have survived in that of Rome. They will be found in the "Missale Mixtum," loc. cit., col. 297.

The Priest then says a prayer in a low voice. The following is the text of that which comes after the diaconal prayer:

"Exaudi orationem nostram, domine: gemitusque nostros auribus percipe: nos enim iniquitates nostras agnoscimus . et delicta nostra coram te pandimus tibi Deus peccavimus: tibique confitentes veniam exposcimus. Et quia recessimus a mandatis tuis: et legi tue minime paruimus. Convertere, Domine, super servos tuos quos redimisti sanguine tuo. Indulge quaesumus nobis: et peccatis nostris veniam tribue: tueque pietatis misericordiam in nobis largire dignare. Amen.

Per misericordiam tuam Deus noster qui es benedictus et vivis et omnia regis in secula seculorum. Amen."

In the Gallican liturgies this prayer is called "Post Precem."

EPISTLE.--After the singing of the "Psallendo" and the Diaconal Prayers the Priest commanded silence, "Silentium facite," and the Lector read the Epistle, usually called the Apostle, as in Gaul, Italy, Africa, and other countries. He first announced the title, as, for instance, "Sequentia epistolae Pauli ad Corinthios," to which the people answered "Deo Gratias," and signed themselves. But as far back as the time of St. Isidore it was no longer the Lector, but the Deacon, who read the Epistle. The reading ended, the people responded Amen, and the Deacon descending from the ambone, carried the book back to the sacristy (cf. Lesley's note, col. 268). The text was not always read in its integrity, and the Mozarabic books contain examples of Lessons where texts are combined or fitted together. (Thus, P.L., loc. cit., cols. 622 and 278.)

GOSPEL.--Like the Epistle, the Gospel was at first read in Spain by the Lector. Then this function was reserved for the Deacon, "ad diaconum pertinere praedicare Evangelium et apostolum" (St. Isidore, "Ep. ad Ludifr."). This also was the case in Gaul (Gregory of Tours, "Hist. Franc.," I, VIII, c. iv. IV). The Deacon first said the prayer, "Munda cor meum corpusque et labia mea," etc., and then went to receive the Bishop's blessing: "Corroboret Dominus sensum tuum," etc. Having returned to the altar the Deacon said: "Laus tibi," clergy and people responding: "Laus tibi, Domine Jesu Christe, Rex aeternae gloriae." He then ascended the ambone, with the book, preceded by those who bore candles, and perhaps incense, and announced the reading: "Lectio sancti evangelii secundum Lucam," to which the people answered: "Gloria tibi, Domine," making the sign of the Cross, and responding "Amen" at the end of the Gospel, which they stood upright to hear. The Bishop kissed the book of the Gospels when this was presented to him, saying: "Ave, verbum divinum, reformatio virtutum et restitutio sanitatum." (P.L., Vol. LXXXV, col. 269.)

As in the case of the Prophecy and the Epistle, the Mozarabic books do not scruple to omit verses of the Gospel, or to rearrange its text. After the reading the Priest said: "Dominus sit semper vobiscum. "Et cum spiritu tuo."

In private Masses the Priest recited a prayer before the Gospel: "Comforta me, Rex sanctorum," etc., and also the "Dominus sit in corde meo," etc., the Deacon saying the "Munda cor meum" (cf. loc. cit., col. 528). But these prayers are of a later age, and are probably borrowed from the Roman liturgy.

LAUDA.--The "Lauda," which follows the Gospel, is composed of the "Alleluia" and a verse taken generally from a psalm. This place was assigned to it by the Fourth Council of Toledo (cf. also St. Isidore, "Offic.," I, I, c. xiii.). In the "Missale Mixtum" it is followed by "Deo Gratias," but it would not appear that this is primitive (P.L., loc. cit., col. 536). The "Lauda" is sung by the Cantor. This custom of singing a verse after the Gospel is found in other liturgies.

At this point there was formerly (at least on certain days, especially in Lent) a prayer for the penitents, and their dismissal, as well as that of the catechumens (cf. P.L., loc. cit., cols. 307, 308). Here the Pre-Mass ended. We see that its principal features are very much the same as those of the Gallican, and even the Roman, Pre-Mass. But the Mozarabic rite has preserved more memories of the primitive liturgy.


I. THE IMMEDIATE PREPARATION.--In the "Missale Mixtum" the Offertory is composed of the following prayers, which accompany the different acts of the Priest: the offering of the Host and the chalice, the preparation of the chalice and the paten on the altar, etc.: "Acceptabilis sit, Offerimus tibi hanc oblationem . . . et omnium offerentium, In spiritu humilitatis, Adjuvate me, fratres" (loc. cit., col. 113).

Offertory.--The "Sacrificium "which follows these prayers answers to the singing of the Offertory. St. Isidore uses the two words as synonyms. In the letter "ad Ludifr.," so often quoted, he says "Sacrificium;" but in "De Offic.," I, I, 14, he says "Offertoria." The Gallicans have a chant here, "Sonus."

Those who were not to assist at the Sacrifice having been dismissed, the Deacons took off the pallium, which up till then had covered the altar, and laid the Corporal upon it. "Quis fidelium," says St. Optatus, "nesciat in peragendis mysteriis ipsa ligna altaris linteamine operiri (Cont. Parmen., I, VI)." This cloth, sometimes also called "Palla Corporalis," and made of pure linen, covered the whole altar. It was a general custom which can be proved in Egypt, Gaul, Africa, and Rome, as well as in Spain (Isid. of Pelus., Ep., CXXIII, "Ad Dorotheum comitem;" Gregory of Tours, "Hist.," I, VII, c. xxii.; Optatus of Milevia, "Cont. Parmen.," I, VI; "Ordo Romanus," in Mabillon, ii. n. 9; cf. P.L., Vol. LXXXV, col. 339).

While the choir sang the "Sacrificium" the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons received the oblations of the people --bread and wine. The men first made their offering, in order of dignity, then the women, the Priests, Deacons, clerics, the Bishop himself offering last of all. Great precautions were taken that the bread should not be touched by hand. The Bishop and Priests received the bread upon the "Offertorium," or "Oblatorium," a vase of silver, gold, or copper. At Rome the "Oblatorium" was replaced by a linen cloth held by two acolytes. The people themselves were not allowed to touch the offerings, which were presented in a linen cloth. These loaves of pure wheat might originally have been leavened, but the use of unleavened bread was established in Spain as elsewhere (cf. Lesley's note, loc. cit., col. 339).

As to the wine, it was presented in small flagons or other receptacles. The Deacons poured it all into a great chalice destined for this purpose. They next took from the offerings of bread and wine what would be necessary for Communion, and kept the rest. Those loaves intended for Holy Communion were placed on a paten and the paten upon the altar; the wine was put into the chalice and mixed with water. Sometimes there were of necessity many chalices and patens upon the altar. The paten was not given to the sub-
Deacon as in the Roman rite. The Deacons then covered the oblations with a pallium, which was usually made of silk embroidered with gold; this was called "Coopertorium," "Palla," or "Palla Corporalis." There was a prayer, "ad extendum corporalia." The other prayers found in the Mozarabic books for these different acts are of a later epoch. In Spain, as in Gaul and Rome, these various acts in primitive days were not accompanied by prayers P.L., loc. cit., col. 340, and Lesley's note, ibid.).

The Oblation finished, the Bishop returned to his throne and washed his hands. This is also an ancient custom, which is attested both by the "Apostolic Constitutions" (I, VIII, c. xi.) and by Cyril of Jerusalem (Catech. myst., V). In Spain it was the Deacon who served at this office, while the sub-Deacon offered water to the Priests and Deacons for the same purpose. The Bishop then returned to the altar, gave the signal for stopping the singing of the "Sacrificium," and said "Adjuvate me, fratres;" after which he recited the "Accedam ad te" which belongs to the class of "Apologiae sacerdotis" (P.L., loc. cit., col. 113, and article "Apologies" in DACL. On the differences between these rites and the modifications which they underwent in the Mozarabic liturgy during the Middle Ages, see Lesley's note, col. 535).

"Missa."--The Priest usually said with the "Dominus sit semper vobiscum" another prayer called "Missa." It is the first of the seven prayers of St. Isidore ("De Offic.," I, I c. xiv.). Etherius and Beatus describe it in these terms "Prima oratio admonitionis erga populum est, ut omnes excitentur ad orandum Deum "("Adv. Elipand.," I, I). It is plainly an opening prayer, the opening of the Mass of the Faithful, a prayer to prepare them for the Sacrifice. It varies according to the Feasts and liturgical epochs and is addressed sometimes to the faithful, "dilectissimi fratres;" sometimes to God the Father or to Our Lord (P.L., col. 113; cf. 346 and 539). The Missal of Bobbio gives a similar prayer, but this often has no title. Once it is called (as here) "Missa;" another time "Collectio," and twice, "Praefatio." In the other Gallican Sacramentaries it is called "Praefatio," or "Praefatio Missae." The title "Oratio" is also given to it in the "Missale Mixtum" (P.L., col. 539)

The "Missa" is sometimes an invocation of the Father or the Son; sometimes a series of pious exclamations; sometimes again a lyrical chant in honor of the mystery or of the martyr whose Feast the Church is celebrating. Sometimes it is preceded by an "Apologia sacerdotis." After the "Missa" the clergy responded: "Agie, agie, agie," etc. Then the Priest said: "Erigite vos" ("Liber ordinum," cols. 234, 235, and 186, 191; "Liber Sacramentorum Mozarabicus," p. xx.).

"Prayer of the Faithful.-"-After the prayer the people said Amen, and the Priest added these words: "Per misericordiam tuam," etc. Then, raising his hands: "Oremus," to which the choir responded: "Agyos, Agyos, Agyos, Domine Deus, Rex aeterne tibi laudes et gratias. Postea dicat Presbyter: Ecclesiam sanctam catholicam in orationibus in mente habeamus . . . omnes lapsos, captivos, infirmos, atque peregrinos in mente habeamus: ut eos Dominus," etc. In the "Liber Mozarabicus" this prayer is simply called "alia oratio," or even "alia" (cf. p. xxi.). The choir responded: "Presta eterne omnipotens Deus." The Priest continued: "Purifica Domine Deus Pater omnipotens" . . . making mention of the Priests who offered, of the Pope, and all Priests and other clerics. The commemoration of Apostles and Martyrs followed, their names being enumerated. In all these prayers the choir intervened with occasional acclamations (P.L., loc. cit., col. 113). The "Liber Offerentium," called by the Mozarabites the "Little Missal," contains this prayer under a very much better form, and Lesley's notes must correct that which he gives in col. 113. The "Liber Offerentium" has been included in the "Missale Mixtum"(P.L., cols. 530-569. The "Prayer of the Faithful" will be found in col. 539 seq.). These different prayers, from the first "Per misericordiam tuam . . . Oremus," would seem to tend towards the second prayer of the Mass defined by St. Isidore: "Secunda (oratio) invocationis ad Deum est, ut clementer suscipiat preces fidelium, oblationemque eorum." Here indeed can be recognised the principal features of that Prayer of the Faithful, or Litanic Prayer, which in the beginning could be found in all liturgies. The Greek and Eastern liturgies have kept it, but in the Roman it has almost disappeared except in the solemn prayers on Good Friday, which give us the Prayer of the Faithful under one of its most ancient and perfect forms. In the Mozarabic Missal it is not given with anything like the same clearness; and has probably been retouched again and again. The expression "Ecclesiam sanctam catholicam in orationibus in mente habeamus" recalls that of St. Fructuosus in 259: "In mente me habere necesse est sanctam Ecclesiam catholicam ab oriente usque ad occidentem diffusam" (in Ruinart, "Acta Mart.," p. 222).

In the manuscripts the reading of the names appears to be considered as a separate rite, under the title of "Nomina offerentium. The list of the names of the living was followed by that of the dead. Usually the Deacon, or the Priest himself, read this list; but sometimes it fell to one of the "Cantores." "Transfer haec nomina in pagina coeli, que levitarum et cantorum tuorum offcis recitata sunt, in Libro vivorum digito tuo," we read in the "Liber Mozarabicus" (ed. Ferotin, col. 546, and Introduction, p. XXl.).[2]

"Oratio post nomina."--This is the name of the prayer which follows. The preceding prayer had comprised the reading of the names of those who offered, and of the dead: "item pro spiritibus pausantium" (P.L., loc. cit., col. 114). It is the third in the order followed by St. Isidore, and he defines it thus: "Tertia autem, effunditur pro offerentibus sive pro defunctis fidelibus, ut per id sacrificium veniam consequantur." Like the preceding prayers, its text varies according to the Feasts. We may note that here the Memento of the Dead is not separated from that of the living, as in the Roman Mass. Moreover, the Spanish diptychs do not only contain the names of Apostles and Martyrs, but also those of Old Testament Saints, Patriarchs, and Prophets (ibid., col. 483 and note). This also was the custom of the Gallican churches, and Venantius Fortunatus has rightly said:

"Nomina vestra legat patriarchis atque prophetis 'Quos hodie in templo diptychus edit ebur.'"
(I, X, carm. vii.)

(See also the prayer "Post nomina" for the Feast of St. Leger, note 68, p. 283.) We find the same custom in many of the Greek and Eastern liturgies. St. Cyril of Jerusalem had said: "Recordamus patriarcharum prophetarum . . . ut Deus eorum precibus et intercessione orationem nostram suscipiat" ("Catech., V;" Lesley refers in a note to these different liturgies, col. 483). The prayer "Post nomina," in the Gallican liturgies, presents characteristic analogies. It was the Deacon who read the Diptychs, the Priest following with the prayer (P.L., col. 375).

In connection with the prayer "Post nomina," Dom Ferotin rightly calls attention to that Secret of the Roman Missal: "Deus cui soli cognitus est numerus electorum in superna felicitate locandus . . . et omnium fidelium nomina beatae praedestinationis liber adscripta retineat," which is a true "Oratio post nomina." He is mistaken in calling it a quadragesimal "Secret;" it belongs to the Mass of the Dead, and there can be no doubt as to its Gallican origin, as well as to that of the Collect and Post-
communion which accompany it (Dom Ferotin, "Liber Mozarabicus," p. xxi.).

We may also notice the very long "Oratio post nomina," which is a homily in itself, drawn up towards the end of the seventh century by St. Julian of Toledo, and which was imposed on all Priests by a contemporary Council of Toledo to end an intolerable abuse. There was a question as to whether certain priests did not, in the "Oratio post nomina," pray for the death of their enemies. The text of St. Julian's prayer is a long and vehement protestation against such criminal maneuvers (see the 5th Canon of the XVIIth Council of Toledo in 694. The prayer is in the "Liber Ordinum," cols. 331-334. Cf. also "Liber Mozarabicus" p. xxi.).

"Oratio ad pacem."--This is thus defined by St. Isidore: "Quarta post haec infertur pro osculo pacis." The Kiss of Peace is placed close to the Communion in the Roman Mass; in Spain, as also in Gaul and in the East, it precedes the Consecration, and even the "Illatio."

It may be said that it is attached to the Prayer of the Faithful, of which it was the natural conclusion. Primitively, the Kiss of Peace must have been frequent, and have formed a part of every synaxis. It must have been fixed at this place in the Mass at an early date, and it was also natural that it should precede the Communion. Perhaps it took place twice in certain churches, in that case one of the two rites must soon have been suppressed as useless. However it may have been in primitive practice, as to which we have not sufficient information we see this singularity mentioned in the Roman rite with regard to the place of the Kiss of Peace at a very early date, in contradistinction from the other Latin liturgies as well as the Eastern. I have mentioned the following very significant fact elsewhere: in the "Traditio Apostolica" of St. Hippolytus, which represents the Roman liturgy at the beginning of the third century, the Kiss of Peace, according to general custom, is attached to the Prayer of the Faithful: "Et postea" (he is speaking of the neophytes who had just received Baptism) "jam simul cum omni populo orent, non primum orantes cum fidelibus, nisi omnia haec fuerint consecuti. Et cum oraverint, de ore pacem offerant. Et tunc iam offeratur oblatio a diaconibus. Didascaliae Apostolorum fragmenta veronensia latina" (ed. E. Hauler, Leipzig, 1900, PP. III, 112). The suppression of the Prayer of the Faithful in the Roman Mass, at the moment when the Roman Canon as we have it to-day was established, must have brought about this change in the place of the Kiss of Peace, as no doubt it brought about many others.

Here, as in many other circumstances the Mozarabic Mass represents customs earlier than those of that of Rome. The "Oratio ad pacem" and the Kiss of Peace were attached to a whole which St. Isidore describes by the words "post haec," i.e. the prayers "Per misericordiam," "Ecclesiam sanctam," "Purifica Domine" (or prayer of oblation), the memorial of the holy Saints, Patriarchs, Apostles, Martyrs, etc., the reading of the Diptychs of the living and the dead with the prayer "Post nomina." Only then, and quite logically, came the prayer for peace, and the Kiss of Peace (P.L., loc. cit., col. 115). It goes without saying that the title "Oratio ad Patrem "is a typographical error for "ad Pacem," as Lesley has already noted. In this the Spanish custom was the same as that of the Gallican churches, where an "Oratio ad pacem" followed the "Oratio post nomina," and preceded the "Illatio" or "Contestatio." In all these liturgies the text of the Oratio ad pacem varies according to the Feasts. In all, those prayers are always about peace, or the oblations. The Greek and Eastern liturgies also have this "Oratio ad pacem" followed by the Kiss of Peace (see these connections in Lesley's note, P.L., col. 505).

According to the "Liber Ordinum" we see that the Deacon intervened at the Kiss of Peace with these words: Inter vos pacem tradite." The Council of Compostella (1056) alludes (c. 1) to the same usage ("Liber Ord.," col. 191; cf. "Liber Mozar.," p. xxi.). While this was going on the choir sang "Pacem relinquo vobis," or some other anthem of the same kind. The same book gives a formula of "Ad Pacem" in which the prayer is preceded by an invocation, as is often the case in this, and also in the Gallican liturgy ("Lib. Ordin.," col. 236).

2. THE SACRIFICE.--The prayer of the anaphora, or Eucharistic prayer properly so called, begins after all this preparation.

"Illatio."--This rite in the Mozarabic liturgy bears the name of "Inlatio," or "Illatio;" and St. Isidore defines it in these terms: "Quinta infertur illatio in sanctificatione oblationis in quam etiam Dei laudem, terrestrium creatura, virtutum coelestium universitatis provocatur, et Osanna in Ecclesiis cantatur." It is preceded by a dialogue which differs from that in the Roman Mass. The Priest, bending forward with his hands joined, says: "Introibo ad altare Dei;" the choir: "Ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem meam." The Priest, laying his hands on the chalice, says: "Aures ad Dominum," the choir answering: "Habemus ad Dominum." The Priest then says: "Sursum corda;" the choir: "Levemus ad Dominum." The Priest bending forward with joined hands: "Deo ac Domino nostro Jesu Christo filio Dei qui est in coelis dignas laudes dignasque gratias referamus." Here he raises his hands towards Heaven (P.L., loc. cit., col. 115). The Mozarabic Illatio," like the Roman Preface or the Gallican "Contestatio," always ends with the "Sanctus," and in Spain, as in Gaul, but unlike Rome, the "Sanctus" is followed by a prayer always called "Post Sanctus." For St. Isidore the "Illatio" or fifth prayer, comprehends the "Sanctus," the "Post Sanctus," and also the Consecration. The sixth prayer is that of the "Post pridie," or "Confirmatio Sacramenti." This division seems just, for it marks clearly the close union of all these parts, from the "Illatio" to the end of the Consecration. Again it is better suited to the title "Immolatio" which is that of the Gallican Prefaces, the word being a good synonym for "Consecratio."

As to the word "Illatio," it is characteristic of the Mozarabic books. Some have attempted to prove that it is a copyist's error for "Immolatio," which, as has been said, is the Gallican title of the Preface, which can be explained naturally. But it is curious that if it be a copyist's error it should be so universal, for the word is found in all the Mozarabic books. The Preface is called "Illatio" everywhere; nor do I believe the word "Immolatio" has ever been found there, except once in the "Liber Ordinum." The question is curious, and perhaps deserves a separate study. "Illatio," or "Inlatio," like "Oblatio" (which is a synonym), is almost the exact translation of the word "anaphero," to offer. In the post-classic tongue the word "Inlatio" (from "inferre") means the action of carrying, like "Invectio," and is specially applied to the dead (Ulpien); it also signifies the paying of tribute. In philosophic language an "Illatio" is a conclusion drawn from premisses, "ex duobus sumptis ratione sibimet nexis conficitur illatio" (Capella). In Spain the word is used in the Councils in the sense of gift, present, tribute (Third Council of Braga, can. 2; and Seventh Council of Toledo).[3] Thus the term "Immolatio" of the Gallican liturgies is something quite different, which may be a corruption, or, if we like, a paleographic interpretation of the word "Illatio." This is the opinion of Dom Cagin ("Les noms latins de la preface eucharistique," in "Rassegna Gregoriana," 1906, PP. 322-358) and also that to which Lesley was inclined (cf. P.L., Vol. LXXXV, col. 507). But so far this is only a hypothesis founded on the similarity of the two words. It remains to be explained why one is exclusively used in the Mozarabic MSS. and the other almost exclusively in the Gallican.

On this point the latter are less exclusive than the former. In the "Missale Gothicum" as well as in the "Missale Gallicanum Immolatio" alternates with "Contestatio" and "Praefatio Missae;" it is not found at all in the "Missale Francorum," and only once in the Missal of Bobbio, and then, as it would seem, by accident (cf. "Paleographie musicale," Vol. V, PP. 100, 101, and 168). The word is absent, as well as "Contestatio," in the letters of the pseudoGermain, and it may well be that this is a fresh argument in favor of the recent date of these pretended letters (cf. "Germain, Lettres de Saint," in DACL). The glossaries and "Thesauri," Ducange, Forcellini, Freund, and the "Thesaurus linguae latinae" of Leipzig give but very insufficient information on this subject, under the word "Contestatio."

Of the dialogue which precedes the "Illatio" we shall say nothing. It contains what we may call the essential elements which may be found in all liturgies, "Sursum corda," "Gratias agamus," etc., and those which serve as the opening of all Prefaces: "Vere dignum et justum est," etc. To the sobriety of the dialogue of the Roman Preface the Spanish liturgy, as always, adds ornaments and complications which only serve to overload the text.

We are obliged to say the same thing of the "Illatio" itself. The Mozarabic books offer the richest and most varied collection of "Illationes;" hardly a Mass but has its own; some of them comprise many columns of text, and if they were sung, these must have lasted at least half an hour. We will attempt presently to discover their authors. But we may say at once that they form a dogmatic collection which is priceless for the study of theological history in Spain during the Middle Ages, and a collection which, it must be confessed, has as yet been but little studied. It contains pages which do honor to the learning, the depth, and the culture of Spanish theologians from the fifth-ninth centuries. We have treated the question of the orthodoxy of this liturgy elsewhere (see "Liturgia," p. 816). Here and there we do doubtless find a few singular opinions, but taken as a whole what riches of doctrine, what fervor of faith and piety i Here are real theological theses, and long panegyrics for the Feasts of Saints, especially for the Saints of Spain, like St. Vincent or St. Eulalia. We will mention only the "Illationes" on the Samaritan, on the man born blind, on fasting, on the Trinity, on the Descent into hell, on the Patriarchs, etc. (The first of these are in the "Liber Sacramentorum," edited by Dom Ferotin, pp. 167, 178, 184, 224, and 290; that on the Patriarchs in P.L., Vol. LXXXV, cols. 271 and 287. See also the "Illatio" on the Trinity, col. 281.)

CabrolDom Cabrol

Naturally the same faults which we have already pointed out in all the other parts of this liturgy are found here; they are those of the Latin literature of Spain, especially from the sixth-tenth centuries--prolixity, verbiage, the abuse of verbal conceits and plays on words--in fact, all those faults which have been decorated with the name of Gongorism.

"The Sanctus."--The "Illatio" always ends by a transition to the "Sanctus." This "Sanctus" of the Mozarabic Mass is not invariable, as it is in the Roman liturgy and most others. In their love of variety the Mozarabic authors often introduced changes. This is the ordinary form:

"Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth: pleni sunt celi et terra gloria majestatis tue: Osanna filio David: Osanna in excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini: Osanna in excelsis" (P.L., loc. cit., col. 116).

The singing of the Sanctus is assigned to the choir in the Mozarabic books. Formerly both in Spain and in Gaul the "Sanctus" was sung by the people. Thus we have in a "Post Sanctus" the words: "Psallitur" (hymnus iste) "ab angelis, et hic solemniter decantatur a populis" ("Post Sanctus" of the fifth Sunday in Lent, P.L., col. 376). Gregory of Tours says in his turn: "Ubi expeditur contestatione omnis populus sanctus in Dei laudem pro clamavit" ("De mir. S. Martini," I, II, c. xiv.). The Eastern liturgies formerly had the same custom, as we see by the "Apostolic Constitutions," and by the texts of St. John Chrysostom and of St. Gregory of Nyssa, quoted by Lesley (col. 349). The texts quoted prove that it was sung in Spain half in Latin, half in Greek. The same usage obtained in Gaul.

"Post Sanctus and Consecration."--The title "Post Sanctus," both in Spain and in Gaul, always designates a prayer which is a paraphrase of the "Sanctus," and which usually begins with the words "Vere sanctus." It is a transition from the "Sanctus" to the Consecration; and is also found, though without a title, in the Greek and Eastern liturgies. In Spain it varied daily (see, for example, P.L., col. 549).

"Vere sanctus" did not end formerly with a doxology, but went straight on to "Qui pridie," by a short formula of this kind: "Vere sanctus, vere benedictus Dominus noster Jesus Christus qui pridie," with the words of Institution. The "Qui pridie" was the Roman formula, as also that of the Gallican and all the Latin churches. The ancient Spanish liturgy followed the same tradition. By a change wrought in the Mozarabic liturgy at a date which cannot be fixed, one of the most audacious changes of which that rite has preserved the trace, the sacred formula was broken into by the introduction of the prayer "Adesto Jesu bone," and by replacing the "Qui pridie," one of the most striking and characteristic features of the Roman and other Latin liturgies, by the "In qua nocte," which is the version followed by all the Greek and Eastern rites. What is perhaps even more extraordinary, the reformers did not try to conceal the traces of this change, but continued to call the prayer which follows the recital of the Institution, "Oratio post pridie!" We give here the text of the "Adesto:"

"Adesto, adesto Jesu bone Pontifex in medio nostri: sicut fuisti in medio discipulorum tuorum: sanctitfica hanc oblationem: ut sanctificata sumamus per manus sancti angeli tui sancte domine ac redemtor eterne (here there is a gap in the Missale Mixtum). Dominus noster Jesus Christus in qua nocte tradebatur accepit panem: et gratias agens, benedixit ac fregit: deditque discipulis suis dicens: Accipite et manducate. Hoc: est: corpus: meum: quod: pro: vobis: tradetur. Hic elevatur corpus. Quotiescumque manducaveritis: hoc facite in meam commemorationem. Similiter et calicem postquam cenavit dicens. Hic est: calix: novi: testamenti: in: meo: sanguine: qui: pro: vobis: et: pro: multis: effundetur: in: remissionem: peccatorum. Hic elevatur calix coopertus cum filiola (=palla). Quotiescumque biberitis hoc facite in meam commemorationem. Et cum perventum fuerit ubi dicit: In meam commemorationem, dicat presb. alta voce omnibus diebus preter festivis: pari modo ubi dicit in claritatem de celis. Ut qualibet vice respondeat chorus: Amen. Quotiescumque manducaveritis panem hunc et calicem biberitis: mortem Domini annunciabitis donec veniet. In claritatem de celis. Chorus. Amen" (P.L., loc. cit., cols. 116--117; cf. also col. 550, another text).

In the later editions of the "Missale Mixtum" a note has been added to the effect that the form of Consecration here given is only a memorial of the past, but that at the present time the Roman form must be adhered to (ibid., cols. 116, and 550, 551, note a).

Dom Ferotin gives two new texts of the words of Institution according to the Liber Mozarabicus and the Liber Ordinum," which present many variants, not only with each other but with the "Missale Mixtum." It can be seen that Rome did not approve the version given in the "Missale Mixtum" of 1500, and substituted for it the Roman formula. That extremely rare edition of Todole preserved at the British Museum contains, fastened to the vellum, this note: "Forma ista consecrationis ponitur ne antiquitas ignoretur; sed hodie servetur Ecclesiae traditio;" and the Roman formula is then given. (This note is reproduced in P.L., cols. 116 and 550. On all this cf. Dom Ferotin, "Liber Mozarabicus," p. xxv.) In two MSS. quoted by Dom Ferotin the words of Institution are preceded by the title "Missa secreta;" and he gives another example in which the "Post Sanctus" is called "Post Missam secretam," which clearly show that at that time this part of the Canon was said in a low voice (ibid.).

The very tenor of this prayer shows that it interrupts the sequence of the "Vere sanctus," and repeats the formula "Dominus noster Jesus Christus." It is quite evidently an interpolation, a fact which has been emphasized by the greater number of modern liturgiologists since Le Brun, Binius, Lesley, Dom Ferotin, Dom Cagin, etc. But no protestations seem to have been raised in the Middle Ages; at least I do not think that any signs of them have been traced up till now. Without seeking for any other explanation, it must simply be stated that at a certain moment, assuredly later than St. Isidore and probably before the tenth century--probably also at Toledo--a Bishop thought well to borrow, from the liturgy of Constantinople, which had already lent so much to Spain, the actual form of Consecration, and this he then substituted for the ancient form which was that of Rome and of all Latin churches (P.L., loc. cit., col 549).

The actual formula, "Hoc est corpus meum," is borrowed from I Cor. xi. 24; while the "quod pro vobis" is the translation of the Vulgate. The Roman formula, "Hoc est enim corpus meum," conforms to that in the liturgy of St. Mark; and it seems also to have been that of the Gallican churches, at least, according to the letters of the pseudo Germain. The formula for the Consecration of the wine is borrowed from I Cor. xi. 24, and from St. Luke xxii. 20, and St. Matthew xxvi. 28. The words "Hic est calix novi Testamenti in meo sanguine" are those of an ancient Latin version different from the Vulgate; they are quoted under the same form by Sedulius Scotus and by Gregory II (see the quotation, P.L., loc. cit., col. 551). The Roman formula, "Hic est enim calix sanguinis mei," etc., was also that of the Gallican churches. The Spanish liturgiologists of that day were not afraid to paraphrase the words of Institution in their own way. (On all this see Lesley's note, col. 551 seq.)

It is stated in the rubrics of the recital of the Institution that there was a double elevation. The custom of the elevation is universal, but it was not practiced everywhere in the same way. That here mentioned is conformable with the usage established in France in the eleventh century, which thence spread, with certain variants, to Rome and to other churches. The Mozarabic rubric shows that the chalice was covered at the elevation; that is, covered with the "palla," or veil, sometimes called the "Offertorium," because it had been used to collect the offerings of the faithful at the Oblation. This was formerly the Roman custom when the elevation took place at the end of the Canon after the "Per ipsum" (cf. the first "Ordo Romanus" of Mabillon, note 16, and the "Ordo" published by Hittorp).

Another rubric which prescribes the words "In meam commemorationem" and "In claritatem de celis" to be said aloud would give the impression that the actual words of the Institution were to be said in a low voice. But Lesley thinks with apparent reason that this rubric is recent, and that the Spanish, like the French, said these words aloud. As to the words "In claritatem de celis," they are another peculiarity of the Mozarabic rite. On Holy Thursday the Epistle was read from I Cor. xi. 20-34. After the words "mortem Domini annunciabitis donec veniat" they added this variant: "in claritatem de celis" taken from the liturgy, but which does not exist in the Vulgate, or in the Greek, or in any other version with which we are acquainted (see P.L., col. 409, for the text of the Epistle, and col. 552 for the rubric).

"Oratio Post pridie" and "Epiclesis."--The prayer Post pridie, which follows the Consecration, corresponds with that called "Post secreta," or "Post mysterium" in the Gallican books. St. Isidore speaks of it in these terms: "Ex hinc sexta oratio succedit, confirmatio sacramenti, ut oblatio quae Domino offertur, per Spiritum Sanctum sanctificata Christi corporis et sanguinis confirmetur" ("De offic.," I, I, c. xv.; cf. Etherius and Beatus, who emphasize the terms "Confirmatio sacramenti"). It should be noted that the Missal of Bobbio has no prayer "Post secreta," which is also missing occasionally in the "Missale Gallicanum" as well as in the "Missale Gothicum." But on the other hand it is always found in the "Missale Mixtum," and as it varies daily, and is sometimes very long, we have here, as in the "Illatio," one of those prayers in which the exuberance of the Spanish Fathers has had free course. Both the place and the function of this prayer Confirmatio Sacramenti "are more propitious than those of the "Illatio" for dogmatic developments. It will be found of great use in the study of the doctrine of the Spanish church upon the Eucharist, notably upon Transubstantiation and the questions connected with it. In reality the prayer answers to the "Epiclesis" of the Eastern liturgies, and, as we have remarked elsewhere, the expressions here used must often be interpreted "cum grano salis." We can note only a few of such examples here, as in cols. 117 and 250, note 7; 519, note a (cf. also article "Liturgie," in "Dict. de theol.," coL 812, and "Epiclese" in DACL).

Sometimes, but far more rarely, the "Epiclesis" is found in the "Post sanctus." (There are some examples of this in Dom Ferotin's "Liber Mozarabicus;" in the same Sacramentary the "Post pridie" is called "Post missam secretam" on the vigil of Easter, a point worthy of remark.) On the other hand, and speaking generally, the "Post pridie" often contains the proof that the Consecration or Transubstantiation is accomplished by the words of Institution. To this interpretation the elevation also bears witness, but it is difficult to fix the date of this rite with the Mozarabites. We may quote, as especially explicit, the following "Post pridie: Hec pia, hec salutaris hostia, Deus Pater, qua tibi reconciliatus est mundus. Hoc est corpus illud, quod pependit in cruce. Hic etiam sanguis, qui sacro propluxit ex latere, etc." ("Liber Moz.," col. 313)
The prayer "Te prestante," which for the rest has no particular title, seems rather the conclusion of the "Post pridie" than a separate prayer. As we shall see, it resembles our "Per quem haec omnia bona creas." This is the text:

"Te prestante sancte Domine: quia tu haec omnia nobis indignis servis tuis: valde bona creas: sanctificas, vivificas benedicis ac prestas nobis: ut sit (sint) benedicta a te Deo nostro in secula seculorum. Amen."
The Priest then takes the consecrated Host on the paten, holds it over the uncovered chalice, and says, or sings: "Dominus sit semper vobiscum. Et cum spiritu tuo. Fidem quam corde credimus ore autem dicamus," and he elevates the consecrated Host to show It to the people. In some places there was sung at this point an anthem: "Ad confractionem panis" (P.L., loc. cit., col. 117; cf. also p. 554 for the explanation of this prayer). Here, as in the Ambrosian Missal, the "Haec omnia" seems to refer to the consecrated elements of bread and wine, created by God, sanctified by prayer, vivified by Consecration, blessed by the Holy Ghost (Epiclesis), and finally given to the faithful in the Eucharist. This at least is the interpretation given to these words by Lesley, who will not admit that of Benedict XIV and other liturgiologists, who say that "Haec omnia" means the fresh fruits which were blessed at this moment. It is an old quarrel amongst liturgiologists, and one which seems as yet unresolved (Benedict XIV, "De missae sacrificio," I, II, c. xviii.). Lesley admits that in certain Sacramentaries these words may indeed apply to a blessing of this kind, but only in a special case. In his opinion the words are too precise, the gestures too solemn to be applied to anything but the elements consecrated in the Eucharist (col. 553, note c).

It is a general custom that the Elevation should take place at this moment. Before the eleventh century it was the principal Elevation. We may also notice that in the Roman Missal the prayer is addressed to God the Father, and that it closes with a magnificent doxology which has disappeared in the Mozarabic Mass.

"The Credo."--The Spanish were the first in the West to introduce the symbol of Nicea-Constantinople into the Mass. In the East the custom already existed, and in 568 Justinus the Younger made it a law. In 597 the Third Council of Toledo issued an edict: "Ut prius quam Dominica dicatur oratio, voce clara a populo" (symbolum Constantinopolitanum) "decantetur, quo fides vera," etc. This is a fresh example of the eagerness shown by the Spanish Bishops to follow the customs of Constantinople. From Spain the usage spread into Gaul; but Rome held out long, and only yielded in the eleventh century. The true place of this symbol is in the rite of Baptism and it is not an essential element of the Mass. The Gallican churches sang it after the Gospel, at the end of the Mass of the catechumens, and this too is the place given to it by Rome. Like the Greeks and Orientals, the Spanish, by putting it at the end of the Canon, before the "Pater," rather disturbed the general equilibrium of this part of the Mass; and, moreover, diminished accordingly the importance of the "Pater." This story of the insertion of the "Credo" in the Mass is fairly well known; and we shall say no more about it. (Cf. Mgr. Batiffol, "Lecons sur la Messe," p. II. See also Lesley's note, which, as is always the case, is highly instructive, and that of Dom Ferotin quoted on the next page. For rather curious variants of the Spanish text--the "Credimus," the "Omousion," the "Ex Patre et Filio procedentem," etc., cf. Lesley, P.L., loc. cit., col. 555 seq., and "Liber Moz.," col. 37.)

The "Liber Mozarabicus" contains a formula of introduction to the "Credo: Omnes qui Christi sanguinis effusione," etc., which is not met with in any printed book, nor even, according to Dom Ferotin, in any MS. ("Liber Moz.," ibid.).

"Fraction.-"-In the Mozarabic rite the Fraction is rather complicated. The Priest divides the Host in the middle, placing half on the paten; the other half is divided into five parts, which are also placed on the paten. He then divides the first part into four. The nine particles so obtained are arranged in the form of a Cross, and each receives its name: "Corporatio" (or Incarnation), "Nativitas," "Circumcisio," "Apparitio" (or Epiphany), "Passio," "Mors," "Resurrectio," and, separately, "Gloria," "Regnum." This figure is twice given in P.L., loc. cit., cols. 118 and 557. St. Ildephonsus alludes to the names of these fragments (De cognitione baptismi, c. xix.; cf. "Liber Moz.," p. xxxiii.). It is unnecessary to say that all these rites are not ancient, any more than it is an ancient practice to make the Memento of the Living here, since at the beginning of the Mass of the Faithful a Memento of the Living and the Dead has already been made. When the "Credo" is finished the "Pater" is said. The Fraction of the bread, a rite so important in its origin that it gave its name to the Mass, has become here, as in the Celtic liturgies, so complicated as to fall sometimes into mere superstition; it is usually accompanied by the singing of the "Confractio," which is to be found in most liturgies. In this rite it is called "Laudes ad confractionem." (Cf. "Liber Ordinum," col 239, and "Liber Moz.," p. xxiii. Cf. also our article "Fraction," in DACL, and P.L., cols. 118 and 557.)

"The Pater."--The "Pater" is recited in the Mozarabic Mass as it is in most liturgies. It is preceded by a prelude which varies according to the day; it is almost always a paraphrase analogous to the Roman prelude, but generally more extensive and more complicated. The "Pater" ends with an embolism of which we shall presently speak (P.L., col 118, cf. 559-591). It is a rather singular thing that the prelude begins with the word "Oremus" which is sung by the Priest. But this rubric is of a later age like that which prescribes "Oremus" before "Agios." In the church of Spain in ancient times it was the Deacon and not the Priest who said "Oremus;" the Deacon, too, made the other interventions: "Flectamus genua, Erigite vos, Levate aures ad Dominum, Silentium facite." St. Isidore says of the Deacons: "Hi voces tonitruorum, ipsi enim, clara voce, in modum praeconis, admoneant cunctos sive in orando, sive in flectendo genua, sive in psallendo, sive in lectionibus audiendo," etc. ("De offic. eccl.," I, II, c. viii.). Etherius also alludes to them ("Adv. Elipand.," I, I). The same custom is noted by the pseudo-Germain (cf. col. 1079)

The presence of the "Pater" in the Mass in most liturgies, since the fourth century at least, is a well-known fact. In Spain, however, certain Priests only said it on Sunday. The Fourth Council of Toledo, therefore, proclaimed it of daily obligation (Canon 10). But it was not said everywhere in the same manner. In Spain the Priest begins "Pater noster qui es in coelis," and the people answer "Amen," and so on with all the petitions. At "Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie" they respond: "Quia tu es Deus;" and after the word "tentationem," at the end: "Sed libera nos a malo, Amen." The "Pater" is the seventh and last of the prayers of the Mass according to St. Isidore ("De offic.," I, I, c. xv.; P.L., loc. cit., coL 559 seq.).

The embolism is not variable as it is with the Gallicans. It is a paraphrase of the last petition in the form of a liturgical prayer, "Liberati a malo," etc. (P.L., col 119). The "Liberati" is sung, like the "Pater;" the same custom obtains in the rite of Lyons, and even in that of Rome on Good Friday.

"Commixtion."--After the embolism the Priest takes from the paten that fragment of the Host which corresponds to "Regnum" (see "Fraction, ut sup."), holds it over the chalice, and lets it fall therein with the words: "Sancta sanctis et conjunctio corporis Domini nostri Jesu Christi: sit sumentibus et potantibus nobis ad veniam: et fidelibus defunctis prestetur ad requiem." From Easter to Pentecost he said instead, with a loud voice, thrice these words: "Vicit leo de tribu Juda radix David," to which the people responded: "Qui sedes super Cherubim radix David, Alleluia" (P.L., loc. cit., col 119).

The "Sancta sanctis" is an ancient Eastern formula, to which St. Cyril of Jerusalem alluded; it is preserved in the greater number of Eastern liturgies. It loses a little of its strength here, because it is said in a low voice, and because it forms part of the prayer of "Commixtion." Lesley rightly supposes that formerly the "Sancta sanctis" was said aloud in Spain and in Gaul, as it was with the Easterns, and that it was followed, as in Gaul, by the singing of the "Trecanum," a hymn in honor of the Trinity. With the Easterns also the "Sancta sanctis" is a doxology (P.L., loc. cit., col 561, note a). We may note that Dom Martene has pointed out in two MSS. of Angers the formulas: "Sanctum cum sanctis," and "Sancta cum sanctis et commixtio," etc. ("De ant. Eccl. Rit.," I, I c. iv. art. 9).

As for the formula of Commixtion, "et sanguinis" must naturally be added to "corporis," as "potantibus nobis" suggests. It corresponds with the same rite in the Roman Canon, "Haec commixtio et consecratio corporis et sanguinis," etc., and to that of the Ambrosian Canon which is almost the same. The rite of "Commixtio" itself is ancient, and common to most liturgies, but here, as for the Fraction, a great variety of customs exists. We content ourselves with referring to our article "Messe," in which these different customs are noticed. The note may also be read in which Lesley describes and compares these rites (loc. cit., coL 561, note c, cf. also "Liber Ordinum," pp. 239-241, and "Liber Moz.," p. xxiii.).

"Blessing."--The rite of Blessing in Spain, as in Gaul, is placed after the "Pater." The Deacon warns the people: Humiliate vos benedictioni. Dominus sit semper vobiscum. Et cum spiritu tuo." The Priest then blesses them with a variable formula, which is interspersed with "Amens" like the "Pater" (see, e.g., P.L., coL 119).

There are a few differences as to the exterior form of this blessing between the churches of Gaul and those of Spain, but the fact of a blessing at this moment is common to both of them; and in both cases the rites present striking analogies. The African church had also this custom of Episcopal blessing, as may be seen by the letter of the Council of Carthage to Innocent I against Pelagius and Celestinus, and by letter CLXXXIX of St. Augustine to John of Jerusalem. But neither the Roman liturgy nor those of the Greek and Eastern churches followed this custom. We find, indeed, formulas of Episcopal blessings in the Roman collections, but they are Gallican additions. The Sixth Council of Toledo (c. 18) recalls the practice of Spain in these words: "ut post orationem dominicam et conjunctionem panis et calicis, benedictio in populum segnatur, et tum demum sacramentum corporis et sanguinis Domini sumatur" (Canon 18, P.L., col. 592, note b).

"Communion.-"-The Communion in the Mozarabic rite comprehends a collection of rites and formulas which must first be described: The salutation of the people by "Dominus sit semper vobiscum;" singing of the "Gustate et videte" and other verses, with doxology "Gloria et honor Patri." During the chanting of the "Gustate" the Priest takes that particle of the Host which answers to the word "Gloria," holds it over the chalice while reciting "Panem celestem," and then says: "Memento pro mortuis," reciting the prayer: "Dominus meus," etc.

He makes the sign of the Cross with the Host, consumes the particle which was in his hand, covers the chalice, and consumes the other fragments of the Host, following the appointed order. He then places the paten on the chalice, saying: "Ave in evum celestis potus," etc. He takes the Blood, and says the prayer: "Dominus meus Pater et Filius," etc. The choir sings "Refecti corpore et sanguine." The Priest goes to the corner of the altar and recites a prayer beginning with the words of the preceding chant: "Refecti corpore et sanguine," etc. This is the prayer of Thanksgiving, which closes with the doxology: Per misericordiam tuam, etc. (P.L., col. 120; ef. also cols. 554, 561, 566, and "Liber Ordinum," 241, 242 "Liber Mozar.," p. xxiii.).

The Deacon intervenes at the Communion with the order: "Locis vestris accedite." Each then must take his place according to a strictly established order: higher clergy, lower clergy, men, women. To each of the faithful he gives a part of the Blood, for Communion was received under both kinds. The anthem "Gustate" is called "Ad accedentes."

"Completuria and end of the Mass.-"-The "Liber Mozarabicus" and the "Liber Ordinum" sometimes contain after the Communion prayers an "Oratio completuria," or simply, "Completuria," which recalls the Roman "Post-
communion." There are many examples of this ("Liber Ordinum," cols. 272, 273; "Liber Moz.," col 343, and pp. xxiii. and xxxv. and the Index at the word "Completuria").

The end of the Mass is thus announced: the Priest salutes the people with "Dominus sit," etc.; the Deacon says: "Solemnia completa sunt in nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi, votum nostrum sit acceptum cum pace. Deo gratias" (P.L., loc. cit., col 120). In the "Liber Mozarabicus" the Deacon says: "Missa acta est" (p. xxxv.).

GENERAL REMARKS.--We shall not point out the analogies between this Mass and that of the Gallican rite; they are so self-evident that many liturgiologists consider both liturgies as two branches from the same trunk, or even as derived one from the other.

From this study of the Mozarabic Mass it may be concluded that this particular liturgy was in a great measure a national one, like that of Gaul, its sister. Many of its formulas were written by Spanish prelates; certain rites also were created by them. For many centuries Toledo was the center of what may truly be called a national liturgy. If ever a Spanish Abbe Bremond writes the history of religious feeling in his own country --
as it has already been admirably written for France --the Mozarabic liturgy will take the most important place therein, and all will be astonished at the wealth, variety, and singularity of its formulas.

We shall not stop here to discuss the question of the orthodoxy of this liturgy, since this has been fully argued by liturgiologists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; by Edmund Bishop, Dom Ferotin, Mgr. Mercati, and Dom de Bruyne. It would take us too far from our subject. We can only give here a Bibliography in which will be found the names of the principal authors by whom the question has been discussed.


1. On the question of documents, see Bibliography at end of this chapter, and also our articles, "Messe Mozarabe" in "Dict. de theol. cath., Mozarabe (liturgie)" and "Missel" (both in DACL.). In 1928 the Benedictines of Silos published "L'Antiphonaire de la Cathedrale de Leon," Burgos.
2. With regard to all this, see the two articles, "Diptyques" and Litanies," in DACL.
3. Cf. our article "Illatio" in DACL.


F. AREVALO, "Sancti Isidori opera omnia," P.L., Vols. LXI-- LXXXIV, and especially Vol. I, "Isidoriana."

BIANCHINI, "Thomasii opera omnia," vol. I (Rome, 1741; only volume issued); on this work, which includes the "Libellus orationum," cf. Ed. Bishop, "Spanish Symbols," in "Liturgica Historica," p. 165 seq.

W. C. BISHOP. Under the title "The Mozarabic and Ambrosian Rites" (London, 1924), the Fifteenth Tract of the Alcuin Club, is a collection of four Essays by W. C. Bishop, one of which is entitled: "The Mass in Spain;" the same writer published an article: "The Mozarabic Rite," in "Church Quarterly Review, "October 1906, January 1907.

CL. BLUME, "Hymnodia Gothica" (Leipzig, 1897).

A. M. BURRIEL, "Codex Muzarabicus," etc.; cf. "Particularites litteraires sur la liturgie mozarabe tirees des lettres MSS. du P.B.," in the "Journal des savants," 1787, pp. 9-14.

DE BRUYNE, "De l'origine de quelques textes mozarabes," in "Revue Benedictine," 1913, vol. XXX, pp. 421-436; "Un systeme de lectures dans la liturgie mozarabe," in "Revue Benedictine," 1922, Vol. XXXIV, pp. 147-155.

CALLEVAERT, "Le careme primitif dans la liturgie Mozarabe" in "Revue benedictine," 1926, t. XXXVIII, p. 60.

CENNI, "Antiquitates Ecclesiae Hispaniae."

D. A. DOLD, "Eine Parallele zum Liturgie--Fragment I aus Cod. Aug. CXCV in der Mozarabischen Liturgie," in "Revue Benedictine," 1927, Vol. XXXIX, pp. 135-136.

EIGUREN, "Memoriadescription de los codices notables conservados en los archivos ecclesiasticos de Espana" (Madrid, 1859).

EUVALD & LOWE:, "Exempla scripturae visigothica "(Heidelberg, 1883) .

FLOREZ "De la Misa antiqua de Espana," in "Espana Sagrada," Vol. III, p. 187 seq (Madrid, 1748).

(For the question of the orthodoxy of this liturgy, cf.: ED. BISHOP, in "Journal of Theological Studies," 1909, pp. 602-603.

ALB. GAYAN, "La Messe mozarabique," in "Revue des sciences ecclesiastiques," 1886, pp. 446-456.

C. A. HALE, "Mozarabic Liturgy," in "Amer. Christ. Church Review," 1876, Vol. XXVIII, p. 273 seq.

P. LEBRUN, "Ancienne et nouvelle liturgie des Eglises d'Espagne," in "Explication de la Messe," edit. 1726, Vol. II, p. 272 seq.

MERCATI, "More Spanish Symbols," in Bishop's "Liturgica Historica," p. 203 seq.; and in "Journal of Theological Studies," Vol. VIII, 1907, pp. 423-
430. To complete this Bibliography see:

JENNER, "Mozarabic Rite," in "The Catholic Encyclopedia," which is scholarly, and contains a complete Bibliography.

"La Liturgie mozarabe," in "Liturgia," pp. 814-819.

U. CHEVALIER, "Topo-bibliographie," at the word "Mozarabe" (Liturgie) .

DOM CABROL, "Mozarabe (La Liturgie)" in DACL.